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To date, only a few nutritional assessment methods have been validated against the biomarker of urinary-N excretion for use in children and adolescents. The aim of the present study was to validate protein intake from one day of a weighed dietary record against protein intake estimated from a simultaneously collected 24 h urine sample.
Cross-sectional analyses including 439 participants of the Dortmund Nutritional and Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study from four age groups (3–4, 7–8, 11–13 and 18–23 years). Mean differences, Pearson correlation coefficients (r), cross-classifications and Bland–Altman plots were used to assess agreement between methods.
Weighed dietary records significantly underestimated mean protein intake by −6·4 (95 % CI −8·2, −4·7) g/d or –11 %, with the difference increasing across the age groups from −0·6 (95 % CI −2·7, 1·5) g/d at age 3–4 years to –13·5 (95 % CI –18·7, –8·3) g/d at age 18–23 years. Correlation coefficients were r = 0·7 for the total study sample and ranged from r = 0·5 to 0·6 in the different age groups. Both methods classified 85 % into the same/adjacent quartile for the whole study group (83–86 % for the different age groups) and 2·5 % into the opposite quartile (1·9–3·1 % for the different age groups). Bland–Altman plots for the total sample indicated that differences in protein intake increased across the range of protein intake, while this bias was not obvious within the age groups.
Protein intake in children and adolescents can be estimated with acceptable validity by weighed dietary records. In this age-heterogeneous sample, validity was lower among adolescents and young adults.
To evaluate the association between fatty acid (α-linolenic acid (ALA), EPA, DHA, palmitic, stearic, oleic, linoleic and arachidonic acids) intake and prospective weight change in the Heidelberg cohort of the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer and Nutrition.
Prospective cohort study with mean follow-up time of 6·5 years. In a total of 9182 men and 10867 women aged 35 to 64 years, from body weight measurement at recruitment and calibrated body weight during follow-up, weight change was expressed as mean annual weight change relative to baseline weight (%/year) and categorised into four groups (weight loss, <−2·5%/5 years; stable weight, between −2·5 and +2·5%/5 years; small weight gain, ≥2·5 to <7·5%/5 years; large weight gain, ≥7·5%/5 years). Energy-adjusted dietary fatty acid intake data were estimated from the FFQ completed at baseline. Multivariate linear regression models as well as multinomial logistic regression analyses (carbohydrate replacement models) were conducted.
Stearic acid intake was linearly associated with weight gain (P < 0·01) in men and women. Linear associations also existed for ALA and arachidonic acid intake, significantly so in women. In multinomial models, women in the highest tertile of ALA and stearic acid intake showed increased OR (95 % CI) for small weight gain (1·16 (0·94, 1·88) and 1·24 (1·08, 1·43), respectively), and large weight gain (1·39 (1·03, 1·88) and 1·56 (1·27, 1·90), respectively), whereas OR were non-significantly increased in men. Dietary intake of ALA was inversely associated with large (0·80 (0·65, 0·99)) weight gain in women only.
These results suggest differential effects of single dietary fatty acids on prospective weight gain in adults.
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