Background: Recurrent glioblastoma portends a poor prognosis and the role of repeat surgery in improving survival remains uncertain. Our systematic review and meta-analysis aims to address whether re-resection provides a meaningful survival benefit and to what degree. Methods: Articles were collected from Pubmed, -CINAHL, EMBASE, Medline and Cochrane from January 1990 to 2018. Studies in the temozolomide era with both single surgery and re-resection cohorts were included. Primary outcomes were odds ratio for survival at 6, 12, and 24 months following re-resection and initial surgery. Results: Fourteen articles were included for analysis (3048 patients). Meta-analysis showed improved overall survival following re-resection at 6- (OR 1.73, 95% CI 1.23-2.45, p<0.05), 12- (OR 1.71, 95% CI 1.20-2.45, p<0.05), and 24-months (OR 2.24, 95% CI 1.01-4.95, p<0.05). Overall survival from diagnosis or first surgery was also improved in patients who underwent re-resection at -recurrence, similarly at 6- (OR 8.22, 95% CI 5.23-12.93, p<0.01), 12- (OR 4.16, 95% CI 3.25-5.36, p<0.01), and 24- (2.35, 95% CI 1.77-3.11, p<0.05) months. Subgroup analyses were done for patients stratified by age, performance status, and number of re-resections. Conclusions: Repeat surgery for recurrent glioblastoma is associated with a significant survival advantage independent of other salvage therapies that include chemotherapy, radiation, and other antineoplastic regimens.