We studied the genus Pleuroxus (including Picripleuroxus) of the rainforests of Cameroon, making extensive use of trunk limb morphology. Six species were found. Pleuroxus aduncus, P. toumodensis, P. unispinus, Pleuroxus cf similis, P. laevis and P. denticulatus show differences in postabdomen, but also in the inner distal lobes (IDL) and endites (E1-E3) of the first trunk limb (P1), endopodites (EN) of the second limb (P2), exopodites (EX) and outer spines of the endopodite of the third limb (P3), and epipodites (EP)/ endopodites (EN) of the fourth and fifth limbs (P4 & P5). These limbs, previously believed to be structurally similar, are thus seen to be built according to a strongly conserved plan, yet with specific differences. The differences found do not coincide with Frey’s subdivisions of the genus based on external characters. Consequently, we cannot confirm the existence of a (sub)genus Picripleuroxus. Four species are shared with temperate to continental and subarctic Eurasia. Pleuroxus cf. similis is closest to a species originally described from Chile, and subsequently reported from Central Asia and Australia. It remains insufficiently characterized. Pleuroxus toumodensis is an African endemic, typical of gallery forests along rivers (from the Niger to the Nile). It is now also found in true rainforest waters. Pleuroxus unispinus was previously known only from Australia.