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Personalized medicine (PM) aims to establish a new approach in clinical decision-making, based upon a patient's individual profile in order to tailor treatment to each patient's characteristics. Although this has become a focus of the discussion also in the psychiatric field, with evidence of its high potential coming from several proof-of-concept studies, nearly no tools have been developed by now that are ready to be applied in clinical practice. In this paper, we discuss recent technological advances that can make a shift toward a clinical application of the PM paradigm. We focus specifically on those technologies that allow both the collection of massive as much as real-time data, i.e., electronic medical records and smart wearable devices, and to achieve relevant predictions using these data, i.e. the application of machine learning techniques.
Many studies of various stress reactive phenotypes suggest that 5-HTTLPR short allele carriers (S-carriers) are characterised by the stable trait of negative affectivity that is converted to psychopathology only under conditions of stress. In this study, we examined the moderating role of the 5-HTTLPR on the relationship between two objective chronic risk factors, i.e. socioeconomic status (SES) and family structure, and internalising symptoms across adolescence.
A multigroup path analysis was employed in a general adolescent population sample of a 5-year follow-up study.
Internalising problems were significantly more stable in the S-carriers. The focus on the main dimensions of internalising problems, i.e. anxiety and depression, revealed two different developmental patterns. In the S-carriers Anxiety problems seemed to be more stable and to predict a possible evolution towards the development of Depressive problems. In the long allele homozygotes (LL-subjects) the anxiety trait was significantly less stable, and, in late-adolescence, seemed to be significantly predicted by SES, suggesting a possible gene–environment interaction (G × E). Family structure seemed to play a role in a G × E perspective only until early-adolescence, while during late-adolescence SES seemed to play a pivotal role in interaction with 5-HTTLPR, with the S-allele playing a protective role.
Future models of the developmental link between environmental adversities and internalising behaviour therefore need to consider that the effect of G × E interaction, may be associated with internalising behaviour via different mechanisms during different time frames and that shifts in the strength of this effect should be expected across development.
This study sought to establish the prevalence of vestibular disorders, migraine and definite migrainous vertigo in patients with psychiatric disorders who were referred for treatment of dizziness, without a lifetime history of vertigo.
Out-patients in a university hospital.
Materials and methods:
Fifty-two dizzy patients with panic disorders and agoraphobia, 30 with panic disorders without agoraphobia, and 20 with depressive disorders underwent otoneurological screening with bithermal caloric stimulation. The prevalence of migraine and migrainous vertigo was assessed. The level of dizziness was evaluated using the Dizziness Handicap Inventory.
Dizzy patients with panic disorders and agoraphobia had a significantly p = 0.05 regarding the prevalence of peripheral vestibular abnormalities in the group of subjects with PD and agoraphobia and in those with depressive disorders. Migraine was equally represented in the three groups, but panic disorder patients had a higher prevalence of migrainous vertigo definite migrainous vertigo. Almost all patients with a peripheral vestibular disorder had a final diagnosis of definite migrainous vertigo according to Neuhauser criteria. These patients had higher Dizziness Handicap Inventory scores. The Dizziness Handicap Inventory total score was higher in the subgroup of patients with panic disorders with agoraphobia also presenting unilateral reduced caloric responses or definite migrainous vertigo, compared with the subgroup of remaining subjects with panic disorders with agoraphobia (p < 0.001).
Our data support the hypothesis that, in patients with panic disorders (and especially those with additional agoraphobia), dizziness may be linked to malfunction of the vestibular system. However, the data are not inconsistent with the hypothesis that migrainous vertigo is the most common pathophysiological mechanism for vestibular disorders.
This is a copy of the slides presented at the meeting but not formally written up for the volume.
Oxygen nonstoichiometry plays a major role in the physics of complex oxides with perovskite structure, also because of its effect on carrier density. Such issue has been systematically investigated in the multichamber system recently set up in our labs, equipped with a RHEED/PLD chamber for thin film growth, and with two XPS/SPA-LEED, and STM/AFM chambers for sample characterization. Variable temperature electron diffraction and photoemission experiments, complemented by scanning probe analyses, were performed in our system in order to systematically address the influence of thermodynamic conditions on oxygen content. SrTiO3-x, in particular, was taken as a prototypical example of an oxygen deficient perovskite for most experiments. The configuration of oxygen vacancies in the terminating TiO2 layer appears to be influenced by the presence of surface steps.
We report photoluminescence spectra of C60 single crystals grown by vapor phase transport method using either the sealed ampoule technique or the open tube technique. The spectra for both types of samples show similar features, but different line resolution related to the two different
growth techniques. An analysis of temperature and excitation intensity dependencies of the
luminescence spectra is reported. The main structures of the spectra have been interpreted according to a model involving intramolecular polaron-exciton recombinations. In particular, emissions due to
purely electronic transitions of singlet and triplet or the exciton and related vibronic recombinations have been resolved. At low temperature, emission bands due to X-traps have been observed on the high-energy side of the excitonic singlet purely electronic transition.
To evaluate whether or not human herpesvirus 8 (HHV8) can be transmitted through a non-sexual route a serological survey was carried out in a group of 51 catholic nuns. The
seroprevalence rate and the geometrical mean antibody titre to anti-latent HHV8 antigen were
similar in nuns and in a group of 60 women, matched by age, in the general population (27 vs.
24%; 1028 vs. 1575, respectively). Moreover, by using nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR),
HHV8 DNA sequences were detected in 7 of 16 (43·8%) saliva and peripheral blood
mononuclear cells (PBMC) from patients with classical Kaposi's sarcoma (KS) and in 3 out of
7 (42%) AIDS-KS patients. None of 5 HIV positive persons who did not have KS tested
positive for HHV8 DNA. HHV8 DNA sequences were also detected in 2 of 12 (17%) saliva
and 1 PBMC sample out of 12 healthy HHV8 positive individuals (age range: 30–80 years old).
This paper suggests that non-sexual transmission of HHV8 is operating in our geographical
setting and saliva may be a potential source of HHV8 spreading in the general population.
The nc-Si/a-SiO2 composite thin films doped with tungsten show very fast and efficient photoluminescence (PL). In order to obtain insight into the PL mechanism we have performed a comparative study with other metals. The results lend support to the suggested mechanism which includes the photogeneration of charge carriers due to efficient absorption of the excitation UV light in the silicon nanocrystals followed by energy transfer to the Wn+ radiative center from which the light emission occurs.
Visible photoluminescence at 1.62 eV has been observed at room temperature from fluorinated and hydrogenated nanocrystalline silicon (nc-Si:H,F) produced in a typical plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition system. The use of SiF4-SiH4-H2 mixture, because of the H2 dilution and the presence of SiF4, favours the amorphous - crystalline transition through the etching process of the amorphous phase. The x - ray diffraction measurements give an average grain size of about 100 Å. The presence of these nanocrystals shifts the absorption edge of the films towards higher energy. An energy gap of 2.12 eV is estimated, although the hydrogen content in the material is only 4.5 at. %. The temperature dependence of the photoluminescence behaves similarly to that of porous silicon.
Laser ablation technique has been successfully used for the deposition of CdSe and CdTe/CdSe multilayers on Si(100) and Si(l11) substrates. X-ray analysis showed that CdSe/Si films were highly oriented. Their orientation changed from (100) to (002) by varying the substrate temperature from 473 to 673K. High orientation was also obtained on multilayered polycrystalline structures of CdSe and CdTe on Si(lll). Photoluminescence experiments have also been carried out on the deposited films.
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