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In this study, we applied ultra-short time series of interbeat intervals (RR-intervals) to evaluate heart rate variability through default chaotic global techniques with the purpose of discriminating obese youths from non-obese youth patients.
Chaotic global analysis of the RR-intervals from the electrocardiogram and pre-processing adjustments was undertaken. The effect of cubic spline interpolations was assessed, while the spectral parameters remained fixed. Exactly, 125 RR-intervals of data were recorded.
CFP1, CFP3, and CFP6 were the only significant combinations of chaotic globals when the standard conditions were enforced and at the level p<0.01 (or <1%). These significances were acheived via Kruskal–Wallis and Cohen’s ds effects sizes tests of significance after Anderson–Darling and Lilliefors statistical tests indicated non-normal distributions in the majority of cases. Adjustments of the cubic spline interpolation from 1 to 13 Hz were revealed to be inconsequential when measured by Kruskal–Wallis and Cohen’s ds, regarding the outcome between the two datasets.
Chaotic global analysis was offered as a robust technique to distinguish autonomic dysfunction in obese youths. It can discriminate the two different groups using ultra-short data lengths, and no cubic spline interpolations need be applied.
Graded exercises tests are performed in adult populations; nonetheless, the use of this type of assessment is greatly understudied in overweight and obese adolescents.
To investigate heart rate autonomic responses to submaximal aerobic exercise in obese and overweight adolescents.
We recruited 40 adolescents divided into two groups: (1) overweight group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls between Z-score +1 and +2 and (2) obese group comprising 10 boys and 10 girls above Z-score >+2. Heart rate variability was analysed before (T1) and after exercise (T2–T4) on treadmill at a slope of 0%, with 70% of the maximal estimated heart rate (220 – age) for 20 minutes.
Heart rate in the overweight group was: 93.2±10.52 bpm versus 120.8±13.49 bpm versus 94.6±11.65 bpm versus 93.0±9.23 bpm, and in the obese group was: 92.0±15.41 bpm versus 117.6±16.31 bpm versus 92.1±12.9 bpm versus 91.8±14.33 bpm. High frequency in the overweight group was: 640±633.1 ms2 versus 84±174.66 ms2 versus 603.5±655.31 ms2 versus 762.6±807.21 ms2, and in the obese group was: 628.4±779.81 ms2 versus 65.4±119.34 ms2 versus 506.2±482.70 ms2 versus 677.9±939.05 ms2; and root mean square of successive differences in the overweight group was: 37.9±18.81 ms versus 10.9±8.41 ms versus 32.8±24.07 ms versus 36.7±21.86 ms, and in the obese group was: 38.7±23.17 ms versus 11.5±8.62 ms versus 32.3±16.74 ms versus 37.3±24.21 ms. These values significantly changed during exercise compared with resting values in overweight and obese groups. Moreover, we also reported no significant difference of resting parasympathetic control of heart rate between obese and overweight adolescents.
There was no significant difference of autonomic responses elicited by submaximal aerobic exercise between overweight and obese adolescents.
The objective of this study was to verify possible associations between heart rate variability indices and physical activity, body composition, and metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in individuals with type 1 diabetes.
A total of 39 young patients with type 1 diabetes were included. Body composition, physical activity, cardiovascular parameters, and metabolic parameters were assessed. For the heart rate variability analysis, heart rate was recorded beat-by-beat using a Polar S810i heart rate monitor for 30 minutes, with the volunteers in the supine position; subsequently, the following indices were considered: standard deviation of all normal RR intervals; root-mean square of differences between adjacent normal RR intervals in a time interval; percentage of adjacent RR intervals with a difference of duration >50 ms; high frequency component in milliseconds squared; high frequency component in normalised units; standard deviation of the instantaneous variability beat-to-beat; and standard deviation of the long-term variability. The association between the heart rate variability indices and independent variables was verified through linear regression in unadjusted and adjusted models (considering gender and age). The statistical significance was set at 5% and the confidence interval at 95%.
High values of at-rest heart rate were associated with reduced parasympathetic activity and global heart rate variability, and higher values of waist-to-hip ratio were related to lower parasympathetic activity, independent of age or gender.
For young patients with type 1 diabetes, increases in at-rest heart rate values are associated with reduced parasympathetic activity and global heart rate variability, whereas higher waist-to-hip ratio values are related to lower parasympathetic activity, both independent of age and gender.
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