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During the past twenty-five years, researchers have made impressive advances in pinpointing effective learning strategies (namely, activities the learner engages in during learning that are intended to improve learning). In Learning as a Generative Activity: Eight Learning Strategies that Promote Understanding, Logan Fiorella and Richard E. Mayer share eight evidence-based learning strategies that promote understanding: summarizing, mapping, drawing, imagining, self-testing, self-explaining, teaching, and enacting. Each chapter describes and exemplifies a learning strategy, examines the underlying cognitive theory, evaluates strategy effectiveness by analyzing the latest research, pinpoints boundary conditions, and explores practical implications and future directions. Each learning strategy targets generative learning, in which learners actively make sense out of the material so they can apply their learning to new situations. This concise, accessible introduction to learning strategies will benefit students, researchers, and practitioners in educational psychology, as well as general readers interested in the important twenty-first-century skill of regulating one's own learning.
The term multimedia principle refers to the robust research finding that learning with words and pictures is more effective than learning with words alone. It should be noted that the multimedia principle refers generally to the (positive) impact of visual and verbal information on learning outcomes. However, basic principles and advanced principles of multimedia learning have been synthesized that provide a more nuanced approach to understanding how multimedia materials can be formatted for optimal impact and how learner strategies and processes can combine with multimedia materials to determine learning outcomes. That is, the multimedia principle provides a context for work that examines when, how, why, and under what conditions the multimedia principle applies. Research findings demonstrating the multimedia principle are consistent with the predictions of cognitive models of multimedia learning. Implications for instructional design and directions for future research are also discussed.