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In this study, aluminium fluoride trihydrate (AlF3⋅3H2O) was used to inhibit the sintering of calcined coal-series kaolin (CCSK). In addition, the oil absorption properties of CCSK were studied. The particle-size distribution, specific surface area and porosity of the samples were investigated as a function of calcination temperature and the addition of AlF3⋅3H2O. Moreover, the ability of AlF3⋅3H2O to improve the oil absorption of CCSK was explored. The morphology, structure and phase composition of the specimens were investigated using scanning electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction. The phase transition during heating of the samples was studied using thermogravimetric analysis. The preparation with 10 wt.% AlF3⋅3H2O had the optimal sintering inhibition effect on CCSK at 1000°C. The release of SiF4 gas during heating and the formation of mullite whiskers on the particle surface caused by AlF3⋅3H2O moderated the formation of molten-phase liquid bridges between particles and inhibited sintering of the raw material powder. Furthermore, the formation of submicron mullite whiskers on the surface of the CCSK particles enhanced the oil-absorption properties of the sample significantly.
Careful mineral and structural analyses have revealed the characteristics of volcanic ash in the nine horizons of an 80.2 m ice core from Collins Ice Cap, King George Island, Antarctica.
Under the assumption of steady state, the Dansgaard-Johnsen flow model was employed to date the core. The volcanic eruptive sequence established for the South Shetland Islands region since AD 1650 shows seven volcanic eruptive cycles during the past 340 years covered by the ice core. It seems that during the period 1875-1925 there was frequent volcanic activity, with perhaps many eruptions at Deception Island. The years 1650-1800 appear to have been a quiet period, followed by a more turbulent century. The past century is basically a tranquil era except for two turbulent epochs at the beginning of the century and in the 1950s-70s.
Many of the volcanic eruptions in the ice-core sequence are found in the previously reported records for this region. The few that are not in the records should be further investigated. The absence of any 1967-70 eruption trace in the core suggests that this period may represent a minimum in volcanic activity.
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