Previously, we have reported on work in dairy goats using stable isotope kinetics to examine the precursors for milk protein synthesis (1). Contrary to a previous hypothesis (2), these results suggested that blood free amino acids (AA) are not simply transported into the mammary gland and incorporated directly into milk protein. Although the latter may still occur, a substantial amount of the AA for milk protein synthesis appears to be channelled through constitutive mammary gland protein(s) first. Moreover, the data indicated that a proportion (12-20%) of the casein protein precursor may be derived from extra-mammary sources other than blood free AA, e.g. peptides and/or proteins. It may be possible therefore to alter milk protein synthesis by the provision of different forms of precursor amino acids. Since the previous study was in goats during early lactation (day 61 ± 11), the present study reports on the precursors for milk protein synthesis in goats during late lactation, and allows a comparison between stages of lactation.