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Practical Healthcare Epidemiology takes a hands-on approach to infection prevention for physicians, healthcare epidemiologists, infection preventionists, microbiologists, nurses, and other healthcare professionals. Increased regulatory requirements and patient knowledge and involvement has elevated patient safety, healthcare-associated infections, antibiotic stewardship and quality-of-care to healthcare wide issues. This fully updated new edition brings together the expertise of leaders in healthcare epidemiology to provide best practice expert guidance on infection prevention for adult and pediatric patients in all types of healthcare facilities, from community hospitals and academic institutions, to long-term care and resource limited settings. Written in clear, straightforward terms to address prevention planning and immediate responses to specific situations, this is the go-to resource for any practitioners in medicine or public health involved in infection prevention, regardless of their current expertise in the field.
To determine whether increases in contact isolation precautions are associated with decreased adherence to isolation practices among healthcare workers (HCWs).
Prospective cohort study from February 2009 to October 2009.
Eleven teaching hospitals.
One thousand thirteen observations conducted on HCWs. Additional data included the number of persons in isolation, types of HCWs, and hospital-specific contact precaution practices. Main outcome measures included compliance with individual components of contact isolation precautions (hand hygiene before and after patient encounter, donning of gown and glove upon entering a patient room, and doffing upon exiting) and overall compliance (all 5 measures together) during varying burdens of isolation.
Compliance with hand hygiene was as follows: prior to donning gowns/gloves, 37.2%; gowning, 74.3%; gloving, 80.1%; doffing of gowns/gloves, 80.1%; after gown/glove removal, 61%. Compliance with all components was 28.9%. As the burden of isolation increased (20% or less to greater than 60%), a decrease in compliance with hand hygiene (43.6%—4.9%) and with all 5 components (31.5%—6.5%) was observed. In multivariable analysis, there was an increase in noncompliance with all 5 components of the contact isolation precautions bundle (odds ratio [OR], 6.6 [95% confidence interval (CI), 1.15-37.44]; P = .03) and in noncompliance with hand hygiene prior to donning gowns and gloves (OR, 10.1 [95% CI, 1.84—55.54]; P = .008) associated with increasing burden of isolation.
As the proportion of patients in contact isolation increases, compliance with contact isolation precautions decreases. Placing 40% of patients under contact precautions represents a tipping point for noncompliance with contact isolation precautions measures.
Peripherally inserted central catheter (PICC) tip malposition is potentially associated with complications, and postplacement adjustment of PICCs is widely performed. We sought to characterize the association between central line-associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) or venous thrombus (VT) and PICC adjustment.
Retrospective cohort study.
University of Michigan Health System, a large referral hospital.
Patients who had PICCs placed between February 2007 and August 2007.
The primary outcomes were development of CLABSI within 14 days or VT within 60 days of postplacement PICC adjustment, identified by review of patient electronic medical records.
There were 57 CLABSIs (2.69/1,000 PICC-days) and 47 VTs (1.23/1,000 PICC-days); 609 individuals had 1, 134 had 2, and 33 had 3 or more adjustments. One adjustment was protective against CLABSI (P = .04), whereas 2 or 3 or more adjustments had no association with CLABSI (P = .58 and .47, respectively). One, 2, and 3 or more adjustments had no association with VT formation (P = .59, .85, and .78, respectively). Immunosuppression (P< .01), power-injectable PICCs (P = .05), and 3 PICC lumens compared with 1 lumen (P = .02) were associated with CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were also associated with increased VT formation (P = .03).
Immunosuppression and 3 PICC lumens were associated with increased risk of CLABSI. Power-injectable PICCs were associated with increased risk of CLABSI and VT formation. Postplacement adjustment of PICCs was not associated with increased risk of CLABSI or VT. Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2013;34(8):785-792
Central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) have been reduced in number but not eliminated in our intensive care units with use of central line bundles. We performed an analysis of remaining CLABSIs. Many bloodstream infections that met the definition of CLABSI had sources other than central lines or represented contaminated blood samples.
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