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This study aims to evaluate the validity and reliability of the Turkish version of the Child Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire for primary and secondary school students.
A methodological, descriptive and correlational study design was adopted.
The study was conducted in the western and central regions of Turkey.
This methodological–descriptive–correlational study was conducted with 351 children between July 2018 and August 2018. The mean age of children is 10·74 ± 1·79 (8–14).
The scale consists of seventeen items and three sub-dimensions (restraint, uncontrolled eating and emotional eating), which explained 52·88 % of the total variance. All the factor loadings were >0·40 in both exploratory factor analysis and confirmatory factor analysis (CFA). In CFA, all of the fit indices were >0·85, and root mean square error of approximation was <0·08. For the whole of the scale, Cronbach’s α was 0·81 and it was found that Cronbach’s α values of all sub-dimensions were >0·70.
The results of the study show that the Child Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire for primary and secondary school students is a valid and reliable measurement tool for Turkish sampling.
To examine score validity and reliability of a child version of the twenty-one-item Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (CTFEQ-R21) in a sample of Canadian children and adolescents and its relationship with BMI Z-score and food/taste preferences.
Children (n 158), sixty-three boys (mean age 11·5 (sd 1·6) years) and ninety-five girls (11·9 (sd 1·9) years).
Exploratory factor analysis revealed that the CTFEQ-R21 was best represented by four factors with item 17 removed (CFFEQ-R20), representing Cognitive Restraint (CR), Cognitive Uncontrolled Eating (UE 1), External Uncontrolled Eating (UE 2) and Emotional Eating (EE), accounting for 41·2 % of the total common variance with good scale reliability. ANOVA revealed that younger children reported higher UE 1 and CR scores than older children, and boys who reported high UE 1 scores had significantly higher BMI Z-scores. Children with high UE 1 scores reported a greater preference for high-protein and -fat foods, and high-fat savoury (HFSA) and high-fat sweet (HFSW) foods. Higher preference for high-protein, -fat and -carbohydrate foods, and HFSA, HFSW and low-fat savoury foods was found in children with high UE 2 scores.
The study suggests that the CFFEQ-R20 can be used to measure eating behaviour traits and associations with BMI Z-score and food/taste preferences in Canadian children and adolescents. Future research is needed to examine the validity of the questionnaire in larger samples and other geographical locations, as well as the inclusion of extraneous variables such as parental eating or socio-economic status.
To develop and validate a child and adolescent version of the Three-Factor Eating Questionnaire (CTFEQr17) and to assess its psychometric properties and factor structure. We also examined associations between the CTFEQr17 and BMI and food preferences.
A two-phase approach was utilized, employing both qualitative and quantitative methodologies.
Primary and secondary schools, UK.
In phase 1, seventy-six children (thirty-nine boys; mean age 12·3 (sd 1·4) years) were interviewed to ascertain their understanding of the original TFEQr21 and to develop accessible and understandable items to create the CTFEQr17. In phase 2, 433 children (230 boys; mean age 12·0 (sd 1·7) years) completed the CTFEQr17 and a food preference questionnaire, a sub-sample (n 253; 131 boys) had their height and weight measured, and forty-five children (twenty-three boys) were interviewed to determine their understanding of the CTFEQr17.
The CTFEQr17 showed good internal consistency (Cronbach’s α=0·85) and the three-factor structure was retained: cognitive restraint (CR), uncontrolled eating (UE) and emotional eating (EE). Qualitative data demonstrated a high level of understanding of the questionnaire (95 %). High CR was found to be significantly associated with a higher body weight, BMI and BMI percentile. High UE and EE scores were related to a preference for high-fat savoury and high-fat sweet foods. The relationships between CTFEQr17, anthropometry and food preferences were stronger for girls than boys.
The CTFEQr17 is a psychometrically sound questionnaire for use in children and adolescents, and associated with anthropometric and food preference measures.
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