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This chapter addresses the controversies surrounding the impact and surgical management of hydrosalpinges and uterine leiomyoma on in vitro fertilization (IVF) cycle outcome. Evidence accumulated over the last 15 years suggests that either unilateral or bilateral hydrosalpinges may exert deleterious effects on IVF cycle outcome. Hydrosalpinx fluid may have a direct embryotoxic effect and may also inhibit fertilization. This deleterious effect may be mediated by the presence of inflammatory cytokines present within hydrosalpinx fluid. Several groups have reported that only large hydrosalpinges, visible on ultrasound, resulted in reduced implantation and pregnancy rates. The impact of uterine leiomyomata specifically on the outcome of assisted reproductive technologies has been evaluated with conflicting results. Evaluation of the uterine cavity by hysteroscopy or sonohysterography should be a routine part of the pre-cycle evaluation. The accuracy of routine ultrasound evaluation and hysterosalpingography is more limited.
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