Dipetalonema caudispina (Molin, 1858) and D. gracile (Rudolphi, 1809) (Filarioidea: Onchocercidae) are two of six known species of filarial nematodes that parasitize Neotropical non-human primates. Adult filariae were collected from the thoracic and abdominal cavities of 38 of 44 specimens of Sapajus macrocephalus (Spix, 1823) and nine of ten specimens of Cebus albifrons (Humboldt, 1812) (Primates: Cebidae), distributed in the Yavarí-Mirín river basin and used locally for human consumption. Co-occurrence of D. caudispina and D. gracile is reported for the first time, with a prevalence of 18.5% (10 of 54 hosts examined). Our finding of D. caudispina and D. gracile in cebids from the Peruvian Amazon constitutes a new geographical record for both filariae, two new host records for D. caudispina, and the first report of D. gracile in S. macrocephalus. In addition, we provide morphometric data for D. caudispina, complementing the original description, as well as scanning electron microscopy details on the structure of the area rugosa and number of caudal papillae in males.