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This paper presents the design, manufacturing and experimental assessment of a morphing element consisting of a composite corrugated panel that hosts a diffused actuation system based on Shape Memory Alloy (SMA) actuators. The characterisation of the SMA actuators is reported and the system performance is predicted through an analytical model and finite element analyses. Two versions of the actuated system are proposed, with different methods for the physical integration of the SMA wires into the composite part. Manufacturing and testing of specimens with different wire densities are reported. Correlation with experiments validates the analytical and numerical approaches adopted for the design and analyses. The results confirm the potential of the concept proposed for developing corrugated panels that can be contracted in a predefined direction by a load-bearing actuation system, but still retain high stiffness and strength properties in other directions.
There is a substantial proportion of patients who drop out of treatment before they receive minimally adequate care. They tend to have worse health outcomes than those who complete treatment. Our main goal is to describe the frequency and determinants of dropout from treatment for mental disorders in low-, middle-, and high-income countries.
Respondents from 13 low- or middle-income countries (N = 60 224) and 15 in high-income countries (N = 77 303) were screened for mental and substance use disorders. Cross-tabulations were used to examine the distribution of treatment and dropout rates for those who screened positive. The timing of dropout was examined using Kaplan–Meier curves. Predictors of dropout were examined with survival analysis using a logistic link function.
Dropout rates are high, both in high-income (30%) and low/middle-income (45%) countries. Dropout mostly occurs during the first two visits. It is higher in general medical rather than in specialist settings (nearly 60% v. 20% in lower income settings). It is also higher for mild and moderate than for severe presentations. The lack of financial protection for mental health services is associated with overall increased dropout from care.
Extending financial protection and coverage for mental disorders may reduce dropout. Efficiency can be improved by managing the milder clinical presentations at the entry point to the mental health system, providing adequate training, support and specialist supervision for non-specialists, and streamlining referral to psychiatrists for more severe cases.
Hyperthyroidism may lead to high anxiety status, emotional lability, irritability, overactivity, exaggerated sensitivity to noise, and fluctuating mood, insomnia and hyporexia. in extreme cases, they may appear delusions and hallucinations as psychiatric symptoms.
we report the case of a 53-year-old female who was diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder. The patient went to emergency department because of high levels of anxiety, with heart palpitations, trembling, shortness of breath and nausea. She was presenting auditory hallucinations and delusions as psychiatric symptoms. an urgent thyroid profile was made and it was observed the next results: TSH < 0.005; T4:4; T3:21. Due to a severe thyroid malfunction, the patient was admitted and treated with antithyroid agent, improving the psychiatric and somatic symptoms.
in this case, a patient diagnosed of hyperthyroidism and generalized anxiety disorder presented very severe psychiatric symptoms, with hallucinations and delusions. These symptoms may be produced by primary psychiatric disorders, but is very important to look for thyroid alterations, because if they are the cause, the acute treatment of thyroid malfunction is the correct management of the patient.
Hyperthyroidism is very common in general population, being infradiagnosed most of times. in patient with anxiety or other psychiatric symptoms, it is very important to make a thyroid function tests before the diagnosis of a psychiatric disorder. in extreme cases, hyperthyroidism status may lead to severe psychiatric and somatic complications.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
One of the characteristics of Karl Jaspers approach to clinical practice was the importance he gave to the subjective experience by the patient. Patient's self-observation is one of the most important sources of knowledge of the psychic life of the patient. The lack of awareness of illness is quite common in psychotic spectrum.
The aim of this paper was to examine and compare a group of patients diagnosed with psychosis disorder with another group with other mental disorders, in relation to their mental and emotional suffering,
The sample was composed by 118 subjects with both sexes. It was divided into two groups: patients with a diagnosis of psychotic disorder and another one with other mental disorders.
Inventory SCL-90-R, which evaluating a wide range of psychological and psychopathological symptoms was used.
Two groups were compared with respect to perceived psychopathological symptoms.
Statistically significant differences were observed between both groups. Patients with psychotic disorders showed lower scores in most clinical scales. It reflects less emotional suffering and psychological distress perceived in this group against the other. It could be related to the lack of awareness of illness by psychotic patient.
Disclosure of interest
The authors have not supplied their declaration of competing interest.
Intermittent explosive disorder (IED) is characterised by impulsive anger attacks that vary greatly across individuals in severity and consequence. Understanding IED subtypes has been limited by lack of large, general population datasets including assessment of IED. Using the 17-country World Mental Health surveys dataset, this study examined whether behavioural subtypes of IED are associated with differing patterns of comorbidity, suicidality and functional impairment.
IED was assessed using the Composite International Diagnostic Interview in the World Mental Health surveys (n = 45 266). Five behavioural subtypes were created based on type of anger attack. Logistic regression assessed association of these subtypes with lifetime comorbidity, lifetime suicidality and 12-month functional impairment.
The lifetime prevalence of IED in all countries was 0.8% (s.e.: 0.0). The two subtypes involving anger attacks that harmed people (‘hurt people only’ and ‘destroy property and hurt people’), collectively comprising 73% of those with IED, were characterised by high rates of externalising comorbid disorders. The remaining three subtypes involving anger attacks that destroyed property only, destroyed property and threatened people, and threatened people only, were characterised by higher rates of internalising than externalising comorbid disorders. Suicidal behaviour did not vary across the five behavioural subtypes but was higher among those with (v. those without) comorbid disorders, and among those who perpetrated more violent assaults.
The most common IED behavioural subtypes in these general population samples are associated with high rates of externalising disorders. This contrasts with the findings from clinical studies of IED, which observe a preponderance of internalising disorder comorbidity. This disparity in findings across population and clinical studies, together with the marked heterogeneity that characterises the diagnostic entity of IED, suggests that it is a disorder that requires much greater research.
Epidemiological studies indicate that individuals with one type of mental disorder have an increased risk of subsequently developing other types of mental disorders. This study aimed to undertake a comprehensive analysis of pair-wise lifetime comorbidity across a range of common mental disorders based on a diverse range of population-based surveys.
The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) surveys assessed 145 990 adult respondents from 27 countries. Based on retrospectively-reported age-of-onset for 24 DSM-IV mental disorders, associations were examined between all 548 logically possible temporally-ordered disorder pairs. Overall and time-dependent hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using Cox proportional hazards models. Absolute risks were estimated using the product-limit method. Estimates were generated separately for men and women.
Each prior lifetime mental disorder was associated with an increased risk of subsequent first onset of each other disorder. The median HR was 12.1 (mean = 14.4; range 5.2–110.8, interquartile range = 6.0–19.4). The HRs were most prominent between closely-related mental disorder types and in the first 1–2 years after the onset of the prior disorder. Although HRs declined with time since prior disorder, significantly elevated risk of subsequent comorbidity persisted for at least 15 years. Appreciable absolute risks of secondary disorders were found over time for many pairs.
Survey data from a range of sites confirms that comorbidity between mental disorders is common. Understanding the risks of temporally secondary disorders may help design practical programs for primary prevention of secondary disorders.
A substantial proportion of persons with mental disorders seek treatment from complementary and alternative medicine (CAM) professionals. However, data on how CAM contacts vary across countries, mental disorders and their severity, and health care settings is largely lacking. The aim was therefore to investigate the prevalence of contacts with CAM providers in a large cross-national sample of persons with 12-month mental disorders.
In the World Mental Health Surveys, the Composite International Diagnostic Interview was administered to determine the presence of past 12 month mental disorders in 138 801 participants aged 18–100 derived from representative general population samples. Participants were recruited between 2001 and 2012. Rates of self-reported CAM contacts for each of the 28 surveys across 25 countries and 12 mental disorder groups were calculated for all persons with past 12-month mental disorders. Mental disorders were grouped into mood disorders, anxiety disorders or behavioural disorders, and further divided by severity levels. Satisfaction with conventional care was also compared with CAM contact satisfaction.
An estimated 3.6% (standard error 0.2%) of persons with a past 12-month mental disorder reported a CAM contact, which was two times higher in high-income countries (4.6%; standard error 0.3%) than in low- and middle-income countries (2.3%; standard error 0.2%). CAM contacts were largely comparable for different disorder types, but particularly high in persons receiving conventional care (8.6–17.8%). CAM contacts increased with increasing mental disorder severity. Among persons receiving specialist mental health care, CAM contacts were reported by 14.0% for severe mood disorders, 16.2% for severe anxiety disorders and 22.5% for severe behavioural disorders. Satisfaction with care was comparable with respect to CAM contacts (78.3%) and conventional care (75.6%) in persons that received both.
CAM contacts are common in persons with severe mental disorders, in high-income countries, and in persons receiving conventional care. Our findings support the notion of CAM as largely complementary but are in contrast to suggestions that this concerns person with only mild, transient complaints. There was no indication that persons were less satisfied by CAM visits than by receiving conventional care. We encourage health care professionals in conventional settings to openly discuss the care patients are receiving, whether conventional or not, and their reasons for doing so.
Traumatic events are associated with increased risk of psychotic experiences, but it is unclear whether this association is explained by mental disorders prior to psychotic experience onset.
To investigate the associations between traumatic events and subsequent psychotic experience onset after adjusting for post-traumatic stress disorder and other mental disorders.
We assessed 29 traumatic event types and psychotic experiences from the World Mental Health surveys and examined the associations of traumatic events with subsequent psychotic experience onset with and without adjustments for mental disorders.
Respondents with any traumatic events had three times the odds of other respondents of subsequently developing psychotic experiences (OR=3.1, 95% CI 2.7–3.7), with variability in strength of association across traumatic event types. These associations persisted after adjustment for mental disorders.
Exposure to traumatic events predicts subsequent onset of psychotic experiences even after adjusting for comorbid mental disorders.
A far-infrared observatory such as the SPace Infrared telescope for Cosmology and Astrophysics, with its unprecedented spectroscopic sensitivity, would unveil the role of feedback in galaxy evolution during the last ~10 Gyr of the Universe (z = 1.5–2), through the use of far- and mid-infrared molecular and ionic fine structure lines that trace outflowing and infalling gas. Outflowing gas is identified in the far-infrared through P-Cygni line shapes and absorption blueshifted wings in molecular lines with high dipolar moments, and through emission line wings of fine-structure lines of ionised gas. We quantify the detectability of galaxy-scale massive molecular and ionised outflows as a function of redshift in AGN-dominated, starburst-dominated, and main-sequence galaxies, explore the detectability of metal-rich inflows in the local Universe, and describe the most significant synergies with other current and future observatories that will measure feedback in galaxies via complementary tracers at other wavelengths.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) course finds a substantial proportion of cases remit within 6 months, a majority within 2 years, and a substantial minority persists for many years. Results are inconsistent about pre-trauma predictors.
The WHO World Mental Health surveys assessed lifetime DSM-IV PTSD presence-course after one randomly-selected trauma, allowing retrospective estimates of PTSD duration. Prior traumas, childhood adversities (CAs), and other lifetime DSM-IV mental disorders were examined as predictors using discrete-time person-month survival analysis among the 1575 respondents with lifetime PTSD.
20%, 27%, and 50% of cases recovered within 3, 6, and 24 months and 77% within 10 years (the longest duration allowing stable estimates). Time-related recall bias was found largely for recoveries after 24 months. Recovery was weakly related to most trauma types other than very low [odds-ratio (OR) 0.2–0.3] early-recovery (within 24 months) associated with purposefully injuring/torturing/killing and witnessing atrocities and very low later-recovery (25+ months) associated with being kidnapped. The significant ORs for prior traumas, CAs, and mental disorders were generally inconsistent between early- and later-recovery models. Cross-validated versions of final models nonetheless discriminated significantly between the 50% of respondents with highest and lowest predicted probabilities of both early-recovery (66–55% v. 43%) and later-recovery (75–68% v. 39%).
We found PTSD recovery trajectories similar to those in previous studies. The weak associations of pre-trauma factors with recovery, also consistent with previous studies, presumably are due to stronger influences of post-trauma factors.
Introduction: Many patients presenting to Emergency Departments (EDs) with acute asthma have limited or no access to health care providers, medications and preventive resources. This study explored outpatient care gaps among subjects presenting to the ED for acute asthma, before being discharged. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of data obtained in a comparative effectiveness trial conducted in six EDs in Alberta (NCT01079000). Data were collected through patient interviews and chart reviews at ED presentation. Two clinician-investigators independently reviewed and adjudicated the following preventive actions: use of spacer devices, written asthma action plans (AAPs) and asthma medication; influenza immunization, cigarette smoking, and referral to asthma education. Agreement between adjudicators was calculated based on kappa (k) statistics. Results: The median age of the study population (n=367) was 28 years and 64% were women. Overall, 26% of patients reported not having a regular family physician. Agreement between reviewers was excellent (k=0.96). More than half (59%) reported not using spacer devices despite being indicated and 3% reported having a written AAP. Following the recommendations of the current asthma guidelines, 38% of the patients required the initiation of inhaled corticosteroids (ICS), 11% required the addition of ICS/long-acting β-agonists combination agents and 39% required reinforcement of adherence with preventer medications. Finally, 37% reported receiving influenza vaccination in the past year, 7% had been referred to asthma education in the last 10 years, and 31% were still smoking, suggesting that cessation counselling was indicated. Conclusion: The ED encounter for patients with acute asthma represents a unique opportunity to establish important partnerships across the continuum of asthma care (e.g., link them with a family doctor). This study provided a robust assessment of the outpatient care gaps in this patient population, which identified many areas for targeted interventions. The method of delivery and type of messaging needs further study.
Introduction: Social desirability bias is a systematic error in self-report measures resulting from the desire of respondents to avoid embarrassment and project a favourable image of themselves to others. This bias may decrease the accuracy of self-reported health outcomes collected in health research compromise the validity of research findings. This study compared outcomes obtained by patient self-report vs. the same outcomes after undergoing verification and external adjudication, in trial involving patients with acute asthma. Methods: Cross-sectional analysis of outcome data obtained in a randomized controlled trial conducted in 6 Canadian emergency departments (ED). Adult patients were allocated to receive usual care (UC), opinion leader [OL] guidance to their primary care provider (PCP), or OL guidance+nurse case-management [OL+CM] for patients (NCT01079000). Asthma relapses and PCP follow-up visits were blindly assessed through patient self-report 30 and 90 days after their ED presentation for acute asthma. Each reported event was verified through the provincial electronic medical record, the ED Information Systems, and by calling the PCPs’ offices. Two study investigators, blinded to the study interventions, independently reviewed and adjudicated the verified outcomes. Disagreements were resolved by consensus prior to un-blinding. Results: Overall, 367 patients were enrolled; more were female (64%) and the median age was 28 years. Overall, patient follow-up was obtained in 85% of cases. The proportion of asthma relapses occurring within the first 90 days were lower when considering patient self-report than when considering the adjudicated outcomes (17%[39/227] vs. 19%[70/367]). The proportion of PCP follow-up visits occurring within the first 30 days were higher when considering patient self-report than when considering the adjudicated outcomes (47%[139/290] vs. 40%[146/367]). The pattern was similar, regardless of the arm of the study (UC vs. OL vs. OL+CM arms); outcome disagreement did not influence the direction of magnitude of the treatment effect. Conclusion: Social desirability bias could have influenced the outcomes obtained by patient self-report in this ED-based study. The direction of the bias was the same for both outcomes; however, the variation did not change the study results. This bias may play a role in studies with smaller sample sizes.
Introduction: Headaches are a common emergency department (ED) presentation. The objective of this study was to characterize headache presentations in Alberta over a five-year period and explore the proportion of patients with potentially severe pathology. Methods: Administrative health data for Alberta (years 2011-2015) were obtained from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) for all adult (>17 years) headache presentations (ICD-10-CA: G43, G44, R51). Patients with a primary or secondary diagnosis code of headache were eligible for inclusion in the study. Exclusions were made using the following criteria: 1) sites without computed tomography (CT) scanners; 2) presentations with a Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) score of 1; 3) patients with trauma or external mechanism of injury (e.g., ICD-10-CA codes S,T,V,W,X,Y); and 4) presentations receiving an enhanced/contrast CT (head). NACRS data were linked with a provincial diagnostic imaging data. Data are reported as means and standard deviation (SD), medians and interquartile range (IQR) or proportions, as appropriate. Results: From 2011-2015, 98,333 presentations were made by 66,970 patients (~0.3 presentations per patient per year; equivalent to one presentation every 3.4 years). Headache presentations increased from 15,643 in 2011 to 21,636 in 2015. The median age was 38 years (IQR: 29, 51 years); more patients were female (69.3%), had a CTAS score of 3 (55%) and arrived at the ED without ambulance (90.3%). The majority of patients had a primary ED diagnosis of headache (88%) and the most common co-diagnosis was benign hypertension (2.8%). Additional diagnoses indicating severe or pathological headaches, included: stroke (0.63%), subarachnoid hemorrhage (0.43%), infection (i.e., meningitis) (0.11%), and other brain hemorrhages (0.08%). Overall, the ED management of approximately 25% of presentations involved a head CT. Most patients were discharged from the ED (89.4%) after a median length of stay of 3.5 hours (IQR: 2.1, 5.2 hours). Conclusion: Headache-related ED presentations are increasing in Alberta, yet few severe/pathological diagnoses are being identified. Efforts to ensure appropriateness of head CT ordering could reduce exposure to ionizing radiation, improve patient flow and reduce health care costs; this imaging represents a target for future interventions.
Introduction: Approximately 20% of Canadians who present to emergency departments (EDs) with acute asthma relapse within 4 weeks of discharge. The reasons are likely multi-factorial; however, the lack of timely primary care provider (PCP) follow-up and inadequate patient self-management are thought to be important variables. Therefore, we tested the effectiveness of ED-directed multifaceted interventions that targeted PCPs and enhanced patient self-management to reduce asthma relapse following ED discharge. Methods: Adults with acute asthma discharged from 6 Alberta EDs were randomly allocated, in a centralized and concealed manner, to receive usual care (UC), opinion leader [OL] guidance to their PCPs, or OL guidance + nurse case-management [OL+CM] for patients (NCT01079000). The main outcome was asthma relapse within 90-days of ED discharge. Secondary outcomes included PCP visits, time to relapse, hospitalizations and asthma-related quality of life (QoL). Outcomes were collected independently and assessors were masked to intervention assignment. Results: From 943 screened patients, 367 patients were allocated to the study arms (UC=146; OL=110; OL+CM=111). Median age was 28 years, 64% were women, median peak flow at discharge was 350 L/min; 77% were discharged home on prednisone and 85% on either inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) or ICS/long-acting β2-agonists. Compared with UC, both interventions significantly increased rates of relapse at 90-days: UC=12%, OL=28%, OL+CM=19%; p=0.006. Based on an absolute increased risk of 0.16 (95% CI: 0.05, 0.25), the number needed to treat for harm was 6 (95% CI: 3.9, 19.0) for the OL arm. Across study differences in PCP follow-up visits, time to relapse, hospitalizations or asthma-related QoL were not identified. Conclusion: Two different theory-informed and evidenced-based interventions intended to decrease asthma relapse robustly and significantly increased rates of relapse compared with UC. While the reasons for these unintended consequences require further study, we caution against the adoption of similar interventions by other EDs.
Introduction: Asthma is a chronic condition and exacerbations are a common reason for emergency department (ED) presentations across Canada. The objective of this study was to characterize and describe acute asthma presentations over a five-year period. Methods: Administrative health data for Alberta from 2011-2015 was obtained from the National Ambulatory Care Reporting System (NACRS) for all adult (>17 years) acute asthma (ICD-10-CA: J45) ED presentations. All presentations to an Alberta ED with a primary or secondary diagnosis of acute asthma were eligible for inclusion. Presentations with a Canadian Triage and Acuity Scale (CTAS) score of 1 were excluded. Data from NACRS were linked with a provincial diagnostic imaging database. Data are reported as means and standard deviation (SD), medians and interquartile range (IQR) or proportions, as appropriate. Results: From 2011-2015, a total of 51,269 (~10,000/year) acute asthma presentations were made by 34,481 patients (~0.3 presentations per patient per year). The median age was 35 years (IQR: 25, 49 years) and more patients were female (57.2%). Few patients arrived to the ED by ambulance (6.5%) and the most frequent CTAS score was 3 (43.5%). The majority of these patients (77%) had a primary diagnosis of asthma in the ED. Differences were explored between those with a primary asthma diagnosis and those with a secondary diagnosis (e.g., ambulance arrival, length of stay, hospital admission, etc.). Although differences were statistically significant, no clinically relevant differences were identified. Patients with asthma most frequently had a co-diagnosis of acute upper respiratory infection (6.2%); other co-diagnoses included bronchitis (4.7%), pneumonia (3.7%), heart failure (0.18%), pulmonary embolism (0.15%), and pneumothorax (0.03%). For 39.3% of patients, ED management included chest x-ray. The majority of patients were discharged from the ED (92.2%) following a median length of stay of 2.2 hours (IQR: 1.2, 3.8 hours). Conclusion: Acute asthma remains an important ED presentation in Alberta and the absolute frequency of presentations has remained relatively stable over the past five years. Frequency of chest x-ray ordering is high and represents a target for future interventions to reduce ionizing radiation exposure, improve patient flow and reduce healthcare costs.
Although specific phobia is highly prevalent, associated with impairment, and an important risk factor for the development of other mental disorders, cross-national epidemiological data are scarce, especially from low- and middle-income countries. This paper presents epidemiological data from 22 low-, lower-middle-, upper-middle- and high-income countries.
Data came from 25 representative population-based surveys conducted in 22 countries (2001–2011) as part of the World Health Organization World Mental Health Surveys initiative (n = 124 902). The presence of specific phobia as defined by the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, fourth edition was evaluated using the World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview.
The cross-national lifetime and 12-month prevalence rates of specific phobia were, respectively, 7.4% and 5.5%, being higher in females (9.8 and 7.7%) than in males (4.9% and 3.3%) and higher in high- and higher-middle-income countries than in low-/lower-middle-income countries. The median age of onset was young (8 years). Of the 12-month patients, 18.7% reported severe role impairment (13.3–21.9% across income groups) and 23.1% reported any treatment (9.6–30.1% across income groups). Lifetime co-morbidity was observed in 60.5% of those with lifetime specific phobia, with the onset of specific phobia preceding the other disorder in most cases (72.6%). Interestingly, rates of impairment, treatment use and co-morbidity increased with the number of fear subtypes.
Specific phobia is common and associated with impairment in a considerable percentage of cases. Importantly, specific phobia often precedes the onset of other mental disorders, making it a possible early-life indicator of psychopathology vulnerability.
Although there is robust evidence linking childhood adversities (CAs) and an increased risk for psychotic experiences (PEs), little is known about whether these associations vary across the life-course and whether mental disorders that emerge prior to PEs explain these associations.
We assessed CAs, PEs and DSM-IV mental disorders in 23 998 adults in the WHO World Mental Health Surveys. Discrete-time survival analysis was used to investigate the associations between CAs and PEs, and the influence of mental disorders on these associations using multivariate logistic models.
Exposure to CAs was common, and those who experienced any CAs had increased odds of later PEs [odds ratio (OR) 2.3, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.9–2.6]. CAs reflecting maladaptive family functioning (MFF), including abuse, neglect, and parent maladjustment, exhibited the strongest associations with PE onset in all life-course stages. Sexual abuse exhibited a strong association with PE onset during childhood (OR 8.5, 95% CI 3.6–20.2), whereas Other CA types were associated with PE onset in adolescence. Associations of other CAs with PEs disappeared in adolescence after adjustment for prior-onset mental disorders. The population attributable risk proportion (PARP) for PEs associated with all CAs was 31% (24% for MFF).
Exposure to CAs is associated with PE onset throughout the life-course, although sexual abuse is most strongly associated with childhood-onset PEs. The presence of mental disorders prior to the onset of PEs does not fully explain these associations. The large PARPs suggest that preventing CAs could lead to a meaningful reduction in PEs in the population.
Research on post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) following natural and human-made disasters has been undertaken for more than three decades. Although PTSD prevalence estimates vary widely, most are in the 20–40% range in disaster-focused studies but considerably lower (3–5%) in the few general population epidemiological surveys that evaluated disaster-related PTSD as part of a broader clinical assessment. The World Mental Health (WMH) Surveys provide an opportunity to examine disaster-related PTSD in representative general population surveys across a much wider range of sites than in previous studies.
Although disaster-related PTSD was evaluated in 18 WMH surveys, only six in high-income countries had enough respondents for a risk factor analysis. Predictors considered were socio-demographics, disaster characteristics, and pre-disaster vulnerability factors (childhood family adversities, prior traumatic experiences, and prior mental disorders).
Disaster-related PTSD prevalence was 0.0–3.8% among adult (ages 18+) WMH respondents and was significantly related to high education, serious injury or death of someone close, forced displacement from home, and pre-existing vulnerabilities (prior childhood family adversities, other traumas, and mental disorders). Of PTSD cases 44.5% were among the 5% of respondents classified by the model as having highest PTSD risk.
Disaster-related PTSD is uncommon in high-income WMH countries. Risk factors are consistent with prior research: severity of exposure, history of prior stress exposure, and pre-existing mental disorders. The high concentration of PTSD among respondents with high predicted risk in our model supports the focus of screening assessments that identify disaster survivors most in need of preventive interventions.
This is the first cross-national study of intermittent explosive disorder (IED).
A total of 17 face-to-face cross-sectional household surveys of adults were conducted in 16 countries (n = 88 063) as part of the World Mental Health Surveys initiative. The World Health Organization Composite International Diagnostic Interview (CIDI 3.0) assessed DSM-IV IED, using a conservative definition.
Lifetime prevalence of IED ranged across countries from 0.1 to 2.7% with a weighted average of 0.8%; 0.4 and 0.3% met criteria for 12-month and 30-day prevalence, respectively. Sociodemographic correlates of lifetime risk of IED were being male, young, unemployed, divorced or separated, and having less education. The median age of onset of IED was 17 years with an interquartile range across countries of 13–23 years. The vast majority (81.7%) of those with lifetime IED met criteria for at least one other lifetime disorder; co-morbidity was highest with alcohol abuse and depression. Of those with 12-month IED, 39% reported severe impairment in at least one domain, most commonly social or relationship functioning. Prior traumatic experiences involving physical (non-combat) or sexual violence were associated with increased risk of IED onset.
Conservatively defined, IED is a low prevalence disorder but this belies the true societal costs of IED in terms of the effects of explosive anger attacks on families and relationships. IED is more common among males, the young, the socially disadvantaged and among those with prior exposure to violence, especially in childhood.