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The seminal characteristics of Moenkhausia oligolepis are described. Three males were induced with a single dose of carp pituitary. Semen was collected 6 h after induction, and diluted in dibasic sodium phosphate extender solution. For motility analysis, 1 µl of diluted semen was added to 10 µl of distilled water to achieve gamete activation. The average duration of total motility was 76.67 s; while the average sperm motility rate at intervals of 15 s was 95.3, 85.3, 59.6, 31.7, 13.0, 4.6 and 1.2%. To determine sperm concentration in samples, 0.5 μl of semen was diluted with 500 μl of glutaraldehyde. An aliquot of 10 μl of this dilution was utilized for cell counting. An average count of 4.97 × 109 ± 3.46 sperm/ml was obtained. Morphological analyses were performed using eosin–nigrosine dye; 20.33% of the sperm were observed to be dead. Live sperm, comprising the other 79.67%, had an average length of approximately 30 µm, with a head diameter of 4.488 ± 0.7 µm; and a flagella plus mid-piece length of 26.071 ± 12.4 µm. Of those sperm, 69% had a normal morphology, while 31% had primary and secondary abnormalities. The observed abnormality rate did not have a detrimental effect on artificial fertilization potential for the species. The description of the seminal characteristics of a species is one of the most important sets of information required for artificial reproduction of fish in captivity. It also contributes significantly to the total biological knowledge of the studied species.
Standardization of operating guidelines for veterinary care in evacuation and emergency animal shelters is imperative for an organized response and to facilitate treatment and prevention of medical conditions stemming from the effects of a disaster and the associated outcomes of sheltering. Safeguarding animal welfare through creating guidelines should expedite care, assure consistency, and provide appropriate safety measures for animals and veterinary medical providers. Veterinary integration into an incident command system (ICS) and response training allows for proper allocation of roles and responsibilities, as well as coordination of veterinary supplies and personnel. Central components of the operational model include guidelines for animal identification, triage, medical records, medical treatments, and discharge instructions. An outline for communication with disaster response agencies, as well as animal owners, is aimed to inform appropriate conduct. Improving the animal component of disaster response is integral in meeting societal needs and improving animal welfare in the face of a disaster.
Methionine is a limiting amino acid (AA) in fish diets, particularly in those containing high levels of plant protein (PP), and is key in the immune system. Accordingly, outcome on the fish immune mechanisms of methionine-deficient and methionine-supplemented diets within the context of 0 % fishmeal formulation, after a short and prolonged feeding period, was studied in European seabass (Dicentrarchus labrax). For this, seabass juveniles were fed a (i) fishmeal-free diet, meeting AA requirements, but deficient in methionine (MET0·65); (ii) as control, the MET0·65 supplemented with l-methionine at 0·22 % of feed weight (CTRL); (iii) two diets, identical to MET0·65 but supplemented at 0·63 and 0·88 % of feed weight of l-methionine (MET1·25 and MET1·5, respectively); and (iv) a fishmeal-based diet (FM), as positive control. After 2 and 12 weeks of feeding, blood and plasma were sampled for leucocyte counting and humoral parameter assays and head-kidney collected for gene expression. After 2 weeks of feeding, a fishmeal-free diet supplemented with methionine led to changes in the expression of methionine- and leucocyte-related genes. A methionine immune-enhancer role was more evident after 12 weeks with an increased neutrophil percentage and a decreased expression of apoptotic genes, possibly indicating an enhancement of fish immunity by methionine dietary supplementation. Furthermore, even though CTRL and FM present similar methionine content, CTRL presented a reduced expression of several immune-related genes indicating that in a practical PP-based diet scenario, the requirement level of methionine for an optimal immune status could be higher.
Lysmata vittata is considered an invasive shrimp in the Atlantic Ocean and some characteristics might have contributed to its invasive success, such as its larval nutritional vulnerability during the early stages of development. The objective of this study was to evaluate the early larval stages of the shrimp L. vittata. Ovigerous specimens were captured in an estuarine region of north-eastern Brazil. Zoeae were assigned to two experiments: (1) the point of no return (PNR), consisting of treatments with an increasing number of days of starvation and subsequent days of feeding; and (2) the point of reserve saturation (PRS), consisting of treatments with an increasing number of days of feeding and subsequent days of starvation. Two control groups were considered: continuous starvation (CS) and continuous feeding (CF). Nutritional vulnerability was estimated by the time when 50% of the initially starved larvae (PNR50) lost the ability to moult to the next stage, when 50% of the initially fed larvae (PRS50) were capable of moulting to the next stage. In the CF, the mean development time (±SD) of the larvae that reached stage III was 4.36 ± 0.74 days with a mortality of 70%, and the mean carapace length (±SD) was 0.61 ± 0.04 mm CL. The PNR50 and PRS50 were 2.42 ± 0.14 and 1.32 ± 0.83 days, respectively. The nutritional vulnerability index (PRS50/PNR50 = 0.54) indicates that L. vittata presents intermediate dependence on exogenous food during the early larval stages, which might help our understanding of the invasive potential of this species in the Atlantic Ocean.
The co-infection between visceral leishmaniasis (VL) and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) has increased in several countries in the world. The current serological tests are not suitable since they present low sensitivity to detect the most of VL/HIV cases, and a more precise diagnosis should be performed. In this context, in the present study, an immunoproteomics approach was performed using Leishmania infantum antigenic extracts and VL, HIV and VL/HIV patients sera, besides healthy subjects samples; aiming to identify antigenic markers for these clinical conditions. Results showed that 43 spots were recognized by antibodies in VL and VL/HIV sera, and 26 proteins were identified by mass spectrometry. Between them, β-tubulin was expressed, purified and tested in ELISA experiments as a proof of concept for validation of our immunoproteomics findings and results showed high sensitivity and specificity values to detect VL and VL/HIV patients. In conclusion, the identified proteins in the present work could be considered as candidates for future studies aiming to improvement of the diagnosis of VL and VL/HIV co-infection.
Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a chronic and relapsing disorder, characterized by aberrant patterns of weight regulation and eating behaviour, body image distortion and resistance to treatment.
This study aims to investigate the reversibility of the most important structural and functional cerebral alteration found in the illness state after weight recovery, in order to distinguish between state-dependent abnormalities and neurological signs of traits vulnerability.
The most significant neuroimaging studies are reviewed from the scientific literature of the last ten years, using the following keywords: “neuroimaging”, “anorexia”, “reversibility”, “weight recovery”, “cerebral blood flow”, differently matched together.
Structural neuroimaging techniques show a widening of internal cerebrospinal fluid filled spaces and a brain gray and white matter volume loss. These alterations take place in the low-stages of AN, as body weight decreases, and generally reverse with weight restoration, as a function of re-feeding. Functional neuroimaging studies reveal a reduced global and regional cerebral glucose metabolism in the acute state, that reverses with recovery. On the other hands, techniques based on stimuli provocation reveal a greater activation in the medial prefrontal and anterior cingulate cortices in response to food stimuli, that persists after recovery, suggesting that these alterations could be primary abnormalities related to trait vulnerability.
Other studies needs to distinguish between primary neural disturbance and secondary phenomena due to starvation, in order to individuate patterns of vulnerability and to develop new strategies of treatment and prevention.
Perturbation of epigenetic mechanisms, which is likely associated with an overexpression of DNA-methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1)in telencephalic GABAergic neurons of schizophrenia (SZ) patients, participates in the pathophysiology of cognitive disorders.
We hypothesize that tobacco abuse, which is very frequent in SZ patients, may be an attempt to self-medicate cognitive dysfunction by reducing DNMT1 overexpression.
In mice treated with nicotine (4.5mg/kg/sc twice a day for 5 days) and decapitated 2,4,8,12 or 24 hrs after the last dose of nicotine, we counted the number of DNMT1 mRNA- and protein-positive neurons in various brain areas using a two-dimensional counting method.
Mice receiving nicotine exhibited a 30-40% decrease in the number of DNMT1 mRNA- and protein- positive neurons in layers I and II of cingulate, piriform, somatosensory cortices and caudate-putamen. A single dose of nicotine causes only marginal changes in DNMT1 mRNA expression.
The high affinity nicotinic receptor antagonist mecamylamine (2mg/kg/sc twice a day for 5 days)given along with nicotine attenuates the nicotine-induced decrease of DNMT1 mRNA-positive neurons in various brain areas.
We also found that cortical layer I and hippocampal GABAergic neurons include high levels of α4 and α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR)subunits which can then mediate the action of nicotine on GABAergic interneurons. The observation that repeated injections of nicotine decrease the DNMT1 mRNA and protein expression in telencephalic layer I and II cortical GABAergic neurons suggests that in these neurons, nAChR may have an impact on the epigenetic modulation of chromatin remodeling.
In mass customization, software configurators enable novice end-users to design customized products and services according to their needs and preferences. However, traditional configurators hardly provide an engaging experience while avoiding the burden of choice. We propose a Design Participation Model to facilitate navigating the design space, based on two modules. Modeler enables designers to create customizable designs as parametric models, and Navigator subsequently permits novice end-users to explore these designs. While most parametric designs support direct manipulation of low-level features, we propose interpolation features to give customers more flexibility. In this paper, we focus on the implementation of such interpolation features into Navigator and its user interface. To assess our approach, we designed and performed user experiments to test and compare Modeler and Navigator, thus providing insights for further developments of our approach. Our results suggest that barycentric interpolation between qualitative parameters provides a more easily understandable interface that empowers novice customers to explore the design space expeditiously.
Purkinje cells are among the most vulnerable neurons, therefore during aging a decrease in these cells in the cerebellar cortex may have a functional impact.
Here we prepared cerebellar serial sections (10 micrometers) in the sagittal plane from adult (3-5 months) and old (25 months) C57BL/6 mice. After staining with 3% cresyl violet, the Purkinje cells were counted in every 40th section in various regions of the cerebellum (10X magnification, Olympus microscope).
The number of Purkinje cells in old mice was lower than in adult mice. In particular, the decrease was 41% in the flocculus (10.4±0.97 versus 17.6±1.8; p<0.005), 38% in the paraflocculus (10.0±0.48 versus 15.8±7.3; p<0.0001), and 26% in the ansiform lobule (10.2±0.65 versus 13.7±1.7; p<0.04).
Measurement of motor activity in adult and old mice showed no changes in horizontal or vertical activity. However, old mice moved a significantly shorter distance in the open field margin (141±13.2 cm/15 min) than adult mice (220± 20.7 cm/15 min; p<0.001). In addition, old mice spent less time in the open field margin (291±36.9 sec/15min) than adult mice (609±36.9 sec/15 min; p<0.0001). Consequently, the time spent in the center was significantly greater in old mice (525±29.9 sec/15min) than in adult mice (291±36.9 sec/15min; p<0.0001.
The present data suggest that abnormalities in cerebellar cortical–pontine circuitry may impair movement. However, the lack of anxiety, indicated by the increased time spent in the open field center, suggests that a defect in the cerebral cortical-hippocampal-amygdala circuitry of old mice should be investigated.
The World Health Organization (WHO) Somatoform Disorders Schedule (SDS) is a highly standardized instrument for the assessment of somatoform disorders according to the tenth revision of the International Classification of Diseases (ICD-10) and the fourth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM-IV). The SDS was produced in the framework of the WHO International Study of Somatoform Disorders and tested for its reliability in Brazil, India, Italy, the USA and Zimbabwe. A sample of 180 patients from general psychiatry, primary care and general medical settings were interviewed with the SDS within a three-day interval by nonclinician and clinician interviewers. The agreement between the two interviews was tested using the intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa statistic. The test-retest reliability of the SDS was found to be very good (the ICC for all the centres was 0.76; overall kappa value for SDS questions was 0.58; one-third of SDS questions had a kappa value of 0.60 or higher). The field test results of the SDS indicated that the instrument may be administered in larger studies by non-clinician interviewers without compromising the ability to document the prevalence of somatoform disorders in different cultures.
Although it is well know that the substance use during pregnancy has a negative impact on mother and child health, there are few data on pregnancy - related substance use as a risk factor for postpartum depression and child outcomes.
Aims: To determine maternal and child outcomes at 8 and 32 weeks postpartum of women who reported substance use during pregnancy.
This is a cohort study of 1804 Caucasian women in postpartum. Exclusion criteria: psychiatric disorders during pregnancy. Women were evaluated at 2-3 days, 8 and 32 weeks postpartum. Socio-demographic, obstetric, personal and family psychiatric history and substance use during pregnancy; the Edimburgh Postpartum Depression Scale (EPDS) were assessed. All women with EPDS>9 at 8 and 32 weeks were evaluated by a structured interview (DIGS) for DSM-III major depression.
The mean (SD) age was 31.7 (4.6). Forty-six percent of them were primiparous. Thirty-one percent has a family and 16% a psychiatry history. Fifty percent of women reported substance use during pregnancy: 42% caffeine, 21.6% nicotine, 8% alcohol and 0.6% cannabis. Incidence of major postpartum depression was: 12.7%. Incidence of: Apgar scores < 7 at 5 min after birth:0.4%, gestational age at delivery < 37 weeks:7.3%, birth weigt < 2.5 Kg:7.3%, and congenital malformations:1.4%.
In the presentation, the maternal and child perinatal outcomes of women exposed to licit and ilicit drugs will be summarize and will include a discussion of the future clinical and research implications. This work has been done in part with Grants: GO3/184;FIS:PI04178;PI041635,PI041783,PI041779,PI041758,PI041761,PI041791,PI041766,PI041782,RD06/0001/1009; CIBER-SAM.
Non-specific chronic low back pain is one of common causes of disability and a recurrent medical complaint with high costs. From rehabilitative medicine, physiotherapy programs and general postural recommendations are offered. Although this treatment is aimed to reduce disability, severity of pain and anxiety-depressive symptoms, many patients report partial improvements and recurrence of pain. Therefore, a new approach to treat this pathology with a broaden focus on psychososocial issues that might modulate pain and its evolution is required.
Aims and hypothesis
To assess the effectiveness of two complementary interventions to physiotherapy, such as relaxation techniques (specifically, sophrology) and cognitive behavioral intervention. It is hypothesized that intervention groups will significantly improve their adherence to physiotherapy and will gain control over their pain. Ultimately, this will foster better quality of life.
Longitudinal design with pre-post intervention measures and follow-up appointments (at 6 and 12 months) carried out in a sample of 66 participants. The sample will be divided into three groups: control (physiotherapy), intervention group 1 (physiotherapy & sophrology) and intervention group 2 (physiotherapy & cognitive behavioral intervention). In all groups biomedical aspects regarding type, evolution and characterization of pain as well as several psychosocial factors will be assessed.
Preliminary results are expected by December 2013.
If hypotheses are confirmed, we will be able to provide empirical evidences to justify a multidisciplinary care model for chronic low back pain, which will favor a significant cost reduction in terms of health care and human suffering.
Poor insight is a distinctive feature of the psychotic spectrum disorders. One of the theories of the etiology of awareness is the neuropsychological view which suggests that there is an association of awareness, cognition and brain changes in psychosis. But the relationship of cognitive reserve, insight and drug use is still an unexplored field in the psychosis literature.
The aim of this research is to analyze the possible moderator effect of cannabis use in the relation between cognitive reserve and insight in psychosis.
A longitudinal study was held with 65 patients with FEP from 3 main hospitals in the Basque Country (Spain). All patients underwent clinical and functional evaluations at base line and longitudinally at one year follow up. Insight was measured using the insight and judgement item (G12) from the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale (PANSS). The cognitive reserve was measured using the Vocabulary sub-scale from WAIS-III and educational level. Drug use was assessed during the clinical interview.
One year follow-up data were available for 35 patients. Significant relation between the cognitive reserve and G12 item (β = −9.58; p < .05) was found as long as the cannabis use is included as a moderator (β = −9.34; p < .05).
As it is a complex multidimensional concept, a more complete explanatory model of the insight recognizing the functions of the cognitive reserve and others covariates as drug use, defines the role of each variable of the illness and facilitates the objects of treatment definitions.
Migration of mental health professionals is an important phenomenon influencing mental health services of host and donor countries. Data on medical migration in Europe is very limited, particularly in the field of young doctors and psychiatry. To research this hot topic, the European Federation of Psychiatric Trainees (EFPT) conducted the EFPT Brain Drain Survey.
To identify the impact of previous short-term mobility on international migration and to understand characteristics, patterns and reasons of migration.
In this cross-sectional European multicentre study, data were collected from 2281 psychiatric trainees across 33 countries. All participants answered to the EFPT Brain Drain Survey reporting their attitudes and experiences on migration.
Two-thirds of the trainees had not had a short-mobility experience in their lifetime, but those that went abroad were satisfied with their experiences, reporting that these influenced their attitude towards migration positively. However, the majority of the trainees had not had a migratory experience of more than 1 year. Flows showed that Switzerland and United Kingdom have the greatest number of immigrant trainees, whereas Germany and Greece have the greatest number of trainees leaving. ‘'Pull factors'’ were mostly academic and personal reasons, whereas ‘'push factors'’ were mainly: academic and financial reasons. Trainees that wanted to leave the country were significantly more dissatisfied with their income.
The majority of the trainees has considered leaving the country they currently lived in, but a lower percentage has taken steps towards migration.
Trazodone is a 5-HT(2) antagonist and 5-HT reuptake inhibitor (SARI), and an antidepressant with therapeutic effects on its target symptoms depressed mood, anxiety and insomnia [1,2]. The aim of our study is to present a possible line of treatment of a depressive episode in bipolar disorder type II with three case report.
BT is a 35-year-old Caucasian lady affected by bipolar disorder type II with a depressive episode. CA is a 40-year-old Caucasian lady affected by bipolar disorder type II with recurrent depressive episode with atypical symptoms. FR is a 38-year-old Caucasian gentleman affected by bipolar disorder type II with recurrent depressive episode. All patients are treated with trazodone immediate release subsequently increased up to 50-75 mg/day. After 6 months of treatment the patients showed a good outcome.
Discussion and conclusion
These case reports underscore the possibility of tailoring therapeutic strategies for the treatment of depressive episode in bipolar disorder type II. Our interest in trazodone lies in the possibility of treatment of depressive episode with the added benefit of resolution of affective symptoms, with fewer adverse effects and a well done effect in this patients. Moreover our opinions is that a therapy like trazodone with this particular profile of action, could represent a new strategy of tratment this patients. Further research is warranted to confirm the efficacy of this treatment.
This is the first European psychiatric exchange programme and it aims to promote an intercultural professional exchange and cooperation among psychiatric trainees across Europe, with a focus on individual experience.
To provide trainees with the opportunities to:
promote awareness of intercultural aspects of psychiatry
engage in clinical, and/or research, and/or teaching activities
become acquainted with different mental health systems
gain experience of different illness manifestations and treatment options
experience a different training programme
socialise with peer group, promote networking and discuss coping strategies regarding work life balance
The programme was developed by the exchange working group of the EFPT in 2011 and it offers 2-6 weeks in observational placements across Europe in diverse areas.
Feedback from pilot phase (January-July 2012) has shown excellent overall satisfaction of participants in the project. In the 2nd phase (August-December 2012) the programme has expanded offering more observational placements in 8 countries such as: Croatia, Denmark, France, Italy, Portugal, Slovenia, Spain and UK. In the 3rd phase (January-July 2013) it expanded further to include Ireland, Netherlands and Romania in a total of 11 hosting countries. Placements are offered in many subspecialties such as: psychotherapy, emergency psychiatry, child and adolescent psychiatry, eating disorders, family therapy, liaison psychiatry and psychosomatics, drug addictions, learning disabilities, forensic psychiatry and old age psychiatry.
We hope that the diversity of placements offered by this innovative programme will constitute a new approach to the improvement of psychiatric training and practice across Europe.
When cognitive decline (CD) is present, attention is one of the impaired mental functions. CD is also associated with anxious/depressive symptoms and with some demographic variables, particularly, age.
Investigate the associations between selective attention (Stroop Test: Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Difference between Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color and Difference between Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_ Color) and CD (Montreal Cognitive Assessment/MoCA) in institutionalized elders; explore the predictive value of Stroop variables for CD, controlling anxious/depressive symptoms and sociodemographic variables.
140 institutionalized elders (mean age, M = 78.4, SD = 7.48, range = 60-97) voluntarily answered to sociodemographic questions, the MoCA, the Geriatric Anxiety Inventory/GAI, the Geriatric Depression Scale/GDS and Stroop test.
73 elders (52, 1%) had CD. Dichotomized MoCA was associated with Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word, Stroop Ratio_Color, GDS and the sociodemographic variable schooling × profession. Age and education were not tested, since MoCA was stratified according to those variables. GDS, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color showed to predict CD.
There was an association between Stroop_Word, Stroop_Color, Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color and CD, confirming that selective attention is smaller when the elderly reveal CD. GDS and CD were, also, associated. However, there was no association between MoCA dichotomized and differences between the correct answers (Stroop_Word and Stroop_Color) and Ratios (Stroop Ratio_Word and Stroop Ratio_Color). Selective attention and depressive symptoms predicted CD. It would be important to intervene through cognitive rehabilitation with the elders to improve their attention.
Anorexia nervosa is a syndrome of unknown etiology. Biological, psychological, and social components play a role in the pathogenesis of anorexia nervosa. in approximately 95 percent of cases, the eating disorder is precipitated by dieting. in 8 percent of cases, initial weight loss may be inadvertent but after some weight loss occurs for medical reasons, the patient loses weight by voluntary dieting. Even less common is an iatrogenic onset.
The purpose of this article is to report four cases of iatrogenic onset of anorexia nervosa.
Case study and review of the literature.
The authors describe four clinical cases of patients with an onset of anorexia nervosa precipitated by iatrogenic beginning rather than the more typical onset following intentional dieting.
Risk factors are non-specific and the threshold of disease varies for each patient. Iatrogenic weight loss may be as powerful a trigger as intentional dieting to initiating anorexia nervosa in predisposed individuals; self-induced weight loss may not be a necessary precursor to anorexia nervosa.
Pearl millet (Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R.) is an important crop for rainfed production systems and can play a significant role as a feed source for ruminants owing to its high yield and drought tolerance. It is well-established that the maturity stage can influence the chemical composition as well as the nutritional value of crops traditionally used for silage production, although quantitative evidence that this occurs with pearl millet under rainfed conditions is lacking. The current research assessed the agronomic characteristics, ensilability, intake and digestibility of a Brazilian pearl millet cultivar (IPA BULK1-BF) harvested at four different growth stages. Forage was harvested at 35, 50, 65 and 80 days after sowing and ensiled under laboratory and farm conditions. Apparent digestibility of the silages was determined using 24 male lambs. The results showed that dry matter (DM) and panicle and stem proportions increased with the advancement maturity. The silage evaluations showed that DM, total and non-fibrous carbohydrates and lignin concentrations increased, while crude protein, ADF and in vitro DM digestibility decreased with the increase in plant maturity. Additionally, the fermentation characteristics were improved with the increasing maturity. The digestion study showed that intake of DM and N as well as digestibility of DM and fibre fractions decreased, while lignin intake increased. The results obtained for the production of dry and digestible DM, the ratio of plant fractions and fermentation parameters indicate the possibility of harvesting pearl millet forage after 50 days after sowing for silage production in the Brazilian semi-arid region.