The new alluaudite-group mineral calciojohillerite is one of the major arsenates in sublimates of the Arsenatnaya fumarole at the Second scoria cone of the Northern Breakthrough of the Great Tolbachik Fissure Eruption, Tolbachik volcano, Kamchatka, Russia. In middle zones of the fumarole, calciojohillerite is associated with hematite, tenorite, johillerite, nickenichite, bradaczekite, badalovite, tilasite, lammerite, ericlaxmanite, aphthitalite-group sulfates, langbeinite, calciolangbeinite, anhydrite, sanidine, fluorophlogopite, fluoborite, cassiterite, pseudobrookite, rutile, sylvite and halite. In deep zones it occurs in association with anhydrite, diopside, hematite, svabite, berzeliite, schäferite, forsterite, magnesioferrite, ludwigite, rhabdoborite-group fluoroborates, powellite, baryte, fluorapatite, udinaite, arsenudinaite and paraberzeliite. Calciojohillerite forms prismatic crystals up to 1 cm long, their aggregates and crystal crusts up to 0.5 m2. It is transparent, colourless, pale green, pale yellow, light blue, pale lilac or pink, with vitreous lustre. The mineral is brittle, with imperfect cleavage. The Mohs hardness is 3½. Dcalc is 3.915 g cm–3. Calciojohillerite is optically biaxial (–), α = 1.719(3), β = γ = 1.732(3); 2Vmeas. = 15(10)°. Chemical composition (wt.%, electron-microprobe; holotype) is: Na2O 7.32, K2O 0.10, CaO 6.82, MgO 20.31, MnO 0.68, CuO 0.27, ZnO 0.02, Al2O3 0.56, Fe2O3 3.53, TiO2 0.01, SiO2 0.03, P2O5 1.25, V2O5 0.10, As2O5 58.77, SO3 0.13, total 99.90. The empirical formula based on 12 O atoms is (Na1.30K0.01Ca0.67Mg2.78Mn0.05Cu0.02Al0.06Fe3+0.24)Σ5.13(As2.83P0.10S0.01V0.01)Σ2.95O12. Calciojohillerite is monoclinic, C2/c, a = 11.8405(3), b = 12.7836(2), c = 6.69165(16) Å, β = 112.425(3)°, V = 936.29(4) Å3 and Z = 4. The crystal structure was solved from single-crystal X-ray diffraction data, R1 = 0.0227. Calciojohillerite is isostructural with other alluaudite-group minerals. Its simplified crystal chemical formula is A(1)CaA(1)′□A(2)□A(2)′NaM(1)MgM(2)Mg2(AsO4)3 (□ = vacancy). The idealised formula is NaCaMg3(AsO4)3, or, according to the nomenclature of alluaudite-group arsenates, NaCaMgMg2(AsO4)3. Calciojohillerite is named as an analogue of johillerite NaCu2+MgMg2(AsO4)3 with species-defining Ca instead of Cu in the ideal formula.