To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure email@example.com
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
T-cells play a central role in the pathogenesis of multiple sclerosis (MS). Altered peptide ligands (APLs) have most commonly been used as T-cell receptor (TCR) ligands, to alter T-cell responses to presumed immunogenic or target antigens. The treatment therapies targeting T-cells non-specifically are: lymphocytapheresis, total lymphoid irradiation, anti-CD4 antibody, anti-CD3 antibody, anti-CD154 antibody, CTLA4Ig, interleukin-12, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma and transforming growth factor beta. Although the T-cell is not the primary target of several drugs that are currently approved or are under investigation for the treatment of MS, many of these therapies have secondary effects on T-cell measures. The T-cell is an important target in MS therapeutics. The success of several drugs that specifically target the T-cell and T-cell responses reinforces this point. Further success of T-cell directed therapies depends on the appropriate targeting of phases of T-cell activation and function and the accurate identification of antigens.