Treatment of trauma has been already covered in this journal (Adshead, 1995) and elsewhere (Davidson, 1992; Kleber & Brom, 1992; Wilson & Raphael, 1993). However, there are situations where the trauma can become extensive and chronic, sometimes called Type II trauma (Terr, 1991), necessitating additional therapeutic considerations. Such situations are not uncommon in the world today, frequently occurring during wars that are typically ‘low-intensity’ conflicts involving poor, Third World countries. It has been estimated that there have been over 150 such wars since 1945, in which 90% of all casualties are civilians. According to Summerfield (1996), what predominates is the use of terror to exert social control, if necessary by disrupting the social, economic and cultural structures. The target is often population rather than territory and psychological warfare is the central element. Atrocities, including civilian massacres, reprisals, bombing, shelling, mass displacements, disappearances and torture are the norm. The consequences for mental health, not to mention the social, economic, cultural and other costs, can be substantial.