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In Tanzania, there are high rates of suicidal thoughts and behavior among people living with HIV (PLWH), yet few instruments exist for effective screening and referral. To address this gap, we developed and validated Swahili translations of the Columbia Suicide Severity Rating Scale (C-SSRS) Screen Version and two accompanying scales assessing self-efficacy to avoid suicidal action and reasons for living. We administered a structured survey to 80 PLWH attending two HIV clinics in Moshi, Tanzania. Factor analysis of the items revealed four subscales: suicide intensity, self-efficacy to avoid suicide, fear and social concern about suicide, and family and spirituality deterrents to suicide. The area under the receiver operating curve showed only suicide intensity, and fear and social concern met the prespecified cutoff of ≥0.7 in accurately identifying patients with a plan and intent to act on suicidal thoughts. This study provides early evidence that brief screening of intensity of suicidality in the past month, assessed by the C-SSRS Screen Version, is a strong, resource-efficient strategy for identifying suicide risk in the Tanzanian setting. Patients who report little fear of dying and low concern about social perceptions of suicide may also be at increased risk.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has significantly increased depression rates, particularly in emerging adults. The aim of this study was to examine longitudinal changes in depression risk before and during COVID-19 in a cohort of emerging adults in the U.S. and to determine whether prior drinking or sleep habits could predict the severity of depressive symptoms during the pandemic.
Participants were 525 emerging adults from the National Consortium on Alcohol and NeuroDevelopment in Adolescence (NCANDA), a five-site community sample including moderate-to-heavy drinkers. Poisson mixed-effect models evaluated changes in the Center for Epidemiological Studies Depression Scale (CES-D-10) from before to during COVID-19, also testing for sex and age interactions. Additional analyses examined whether alcohol use frequency or sleep duration measured in the last pre-COVID assessment predicted pandemic-related increase in depressive symptoms.
The prevalence of risk for clinical depression tripled due to a substantial and sustained increase in depressive symptoms during COVID-19 relative to pre-COVID years. Effects were strongest for younger women. Frequent alcohol use and short sleep duration during the closest pre-COVID visit predicted a greater increase in COVID-19 depressive symptoms.
The sharp increase in depression risk among emerging adults heralds a public health crisis with alarming implications for their social and emotional functioning as this generation matures. In addition to the heightened risk for younger women, the role of alcohol use and sleep behavior should be tracked through preventive care aiming to mitigate this looming mental health crisis.
We have determined the strain and particle size for several samples of palladium powder by time-of-flight nrutron powder diffraction on two different diffractometers and by x-ray powder diffraction. The results are compared and found to be in fair agreement. The time-of-flight method gives good enough precision to reveal deficiencies in the simple models used for strain and particle size line broadening.
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