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To describe malnutrition (undernutrition and excess weight) by income, education and race/ethnicity in the Brazilian population.
Children aged <5 years (n 14 580), adolescents aged 11–19 years (n 31 892) and adults aged 20–49 years (n 84 660).
Among children, prevalence of excess weight, wasting and stunting was 16·9, 2·8 and 6·0 %, respectively. Differences related to income, education and race/ethnicity were verified, except for prevalence of wasting by education level. Girls and boys presented 18·4 and 20·5 % of excess weight, 2·8 and 3·7 % of underweight and 5·5 and 7·3 % of stunting, respectively. Prevalence of excess weight was lower among poorer, lower-educated (only for boys) and white adolescents, while stunting was lower among higher-income, higher-educated and white adolescents. Over three-quarters of women and almost half of men presented excess weight. Among adults, 3·9 % of women and 1·7 % of men were underweight, and 5·7 % of women and 0·2 % of men presented short stature. Prevalence of excess weight for women was higher among lower education and black, while for men it was higher among higher income and education and white. Short stature was more prevalent among black and mixed-race, low-educated and low-income women. Underweight prevalence was higher among low-educated, black and mixed-race women.
In Brazil, the prevalence of excess weight was at least threefold higher than that of undernutrition for children and adolescents and at least sevenfold higher for adults. Social inequalities were observed in the distribution of malnutrition across the lifespan and by gender.
To assess household availability of NOVA food groups in nineteen European countries and to analyse the association between availability of ultra-processed foods and prevalence of obesity.
Ecological, cross-sectional study.
Estimates of ultra-processed foods calculated from national household budget surveys conducted between 1991 and 2008. Estimates of obesity prevalence obtained from national surveys undertaken near the budget survey time.
Across the nineteen countries, median average household availability amounted to 33·9 % of total purchased dietary energy for unprocessed or minimally processed foods, 20·3 % for processed culinary ingredients, 19·6 % for processed foods and 26·4 % for ultra-processed foods. The average household availability of ultra-processed foods ranged from 10·2 % in Portugal and 13·4 % in Italy to 46·2 % in Germany and 50·4 % in the UK. A significant positive association was found between national household availability of ultra-processed foods and national prevalence of obesity among adults. After adjustment for national income, prevalence of physical inactivity, prevalence of smoking, measured or self-reported prevalence of obesity, and time lag between estimates on household food availability and obesity, each percentage point increase in the household availability of ultra-processed foods resulted in an increase of 0·25 percentage points in obesity prevalence.
The study contributes to a growing literature showing that the consumption of ultra-processed foods is associated with an increased risk of diet-related non-communicable diseases. Its findings reinforce the need for public policies and actions that promote consumption of unprocessed or minimally processed foods and make ultra-processed foods less available and affordable.
To present and discuss the dietary guidelines issued by the Brazilian government in 2014.
The present paper describes the aims of the guidelines, their shaping principles and the approach used in the development of recommendations. The main recommendations are outlined, their significance for the cultural, socio-economic and environmental aspects of sustainability is discussed, and their application to other countries is considered.
Brazil in the twenty-first century.
All people in Brazil, now and in future.
The food- and meal-based Brazilian Dietary Guidelines address dietary patterns as a whole and so are different from nutrient-based guidelines, even those with some recommendations on specific foods or food groups. The guidelines are based on explicit principles. They take mental and emotional well-being into account, as well as physical health and disease prevention. They identify diet as having cultural, socio-economic and environmental as well as biological and behavioural dimensions. They emphasize the benefits of dietary patterns based on a variety of natural or minimally processed foods, mostly plants, and freshly prepared meals eaten in company, for health, well-being and all relevant aspects of sustainability, as well as the multiple negative effects of ready-to-consume ultra-processed food and drink products.
The guidelines’ recommendations are designed to be sustainable personally, culturally, socially, economically and environmentally, and thus fit to face this century. They are for foods, meals and dietary patterns of types that are already established in Brazil, which can be adapted to suit the climate, terrain and customs of all countries.
To analyse the dietary intake of Brazilian adolescents and investigate its association with sociodemographic factors as well as health-risk and health-protective behaviours.
The study was based on data supplied by the National Survey of Schoolchildren’s Health (2012) on sociodemographic factors, dietary intake and health-risk and health-protective behaviours of schoolchildren in Brazil. A nutritional scale was elaborated combining markers of healthy and unhealthy diets. Poisson regression analysis was applied to investigate the association between the sociodemographic factors and regular intake (≥5 times/week) of selected foods; linear regression analysis was applied to investigate the association of sociodemographic and behavioural factors with nutritional scale score.
A total of 109 104 adolescents attending the ninth year of education at 2842 schools in Brazil.
Fewer than 30 % of the adolescents consumed raw or cooked vegetables on a regular basis, whereas more than one-third reported regular intake of sweets, soft drinks and sweet biscuits. Adolescents from the southern area and the oldest ones were those most exposed to inadequate dietary intake. The nutritional scale average score was higher in the students attending public school and exhibited a positive correlation with protective behaviours, such as being physically active, having meals with parents and eating breakfast, and a negative correlation with risk behaviours such as eating while studying or watching television and having smoked, drunk alcohol or used other drugs in the previous 30 d.
The results indicate an association between undesirable nutritional habits and other risk behaviours among Brazilian adolescents.
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