Jaak Panksepp’s Affective Neuroscience Theory is of high relevance not only for a better understanding of affective brain disorders but also in personality research. To make Panksepp’s theory more accessible for psychologists and psychiatrists, Davis, Panksepp, and Normansell (2003) developed the Affective Neuroscience Personality Scales (ANPS). These scales assess the manifestation of the primary emotional traits in humans based on a personality trait approach. Given their putative foundation in old subcortical areas in the brain, these primary emotional traits (assessed via the ANPS) could represent the evolutionarily oldest manifestations of personality (but this notion is still a matter of a debate). However, the ANPS inventories were based on using contextual items (e.g., about specific attitudes, behaviors, and feelings in specific situations). Recently, an adjective-based ANPS (ANPS-Adjective Ratings or ANPS-AR) was developed for a less context-dependent and more efficient assessment of Panksepp’s primary emotional systems in humans for use by both individuals and independent observer raters. The present work introduces the first German version of the ANPS-AR. Moreover, the current work investigates the original and ANPS-AR versions of the ANPS and their associations with the Big Five personality traits in two independent English- and German-speaking samples. The results show that the ANPS measures are very similarly correlated with the Big Five personality traits across different samples and scales. This work replicates the previous findings in an English version, and demonstrates the reliability and validity of the adjective-based German ANPS-AR.