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Stokes (2010) compared the lexicons of English-speaking late talkers (LT) with those of their typically developing (TD) peers on neighborhood density (ND) and word frequency (WF) characteristics and suggested that LTs employed learning strategies that differed from those of their TD peers. This research sought to explore the cross-linguistic validity of this conclusion. The lexicons (production, not recognition) of 208 French-speaking two-year-old children were coded for ND and WF. Regression revealed that ND and WF together predicted 62% of the variance in vocabulary size, with ND and WF uniquely accounting for 53% and 9% of that variance respectively. Epiphenomenal findings were ruled out by comparison of simulated data sets with the actual data. A generalized Mann–Whitney test showed that children with small vocabularies had significantly higher ND values and significantly lower WF values than children with large vocabularies. An extended statistical learning theory is proposed to account for the findings.
We present results of our investigation of the synthesis, structural properties and electrical transport properties of lead selenide (PbSe) nanoparticle-derived solids. Stable colloidal solutions containing crystalline PbSe particles with sizes on the order of 5-10 nm were synthesized using an organometallic lyothermal growth method in high-temperature organic solvents (100∼200 °C). The nanoparticle powders have been characterized by X-ray scattering (WAXS/SAXS), electron microscopy and optical absorption. Thin lms were formed by controlled precipitation of the nanoparticles from solution onto insulating substrates. Electrical resistance (R) and Seebeck coecient (S) for conductive PbSe lms from dierent annealing conditions were studied and compared. We were able to obtain conductive PbSe lms from colloids by low temperature annealing which did not disturb the nanoparticle self-assembly.
Enteric infection is one of the greatest causes of mortality and morbidity in both human and veterinary species. This is a reflection of the magnitude and diversity of the antigenic challenge to the intestine as well as the ‘complications’ that result from its other physiological roles. That, requires the intestinal tract to have long finger-like villi which not only facilitates the digestion and absorption of nutrients but also provides a large surface area for the interaction with a wide variety of microorganisms and their products.
Important differences exist between the strategies appropriate to the defence from antigen presented via systemic and mucosal routes. Systemic immunity is directed to the active elimination of antigens that have gained entry into host tissues. This is a comparatively rare event and it is appropriate that very powerful mechanisms should be deployed to deal with the intruding material. Such responses may result in collateral damage to the host but by eliminating the provoking material they are self-limiting. In contrast, the immune system of the gut is in constant contact with antigenic material which it is powerless to completely eliminate. Clearly, inflammatory responses under such conditions would be damaging and it is a feature of the gastrointestinal immune system to ‘dampen down’ such responses. While potentially harmful materials and microorganisms remain within the lumen of the intestine, they represent only a minimal threat to the host. It is only when they come into intimate contact with host tissues that they are capable of causing disease.