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Genetic variants and medication adherence have been identified to be the main factors contributing to lithium treatment response in bipolar disorders.
To simultaneously examine effects of variant glutamate decarboxylase-like protein 1 (GADL1) and medication adherence on response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese patients with bipolar I (BPI) disorder.
Frequencies of manic and depressive episodes between carriers and non-carriers of the effective GADL1 rs17026688 T allele during the cumulative periods of off-lithium, poor adherence to lithium treatment and good adherence to lithium treatment were compared in Han Chinese patients with BPI disorder (n = 215).
GADL1 rs17026688 T carriers had significantly lower frequencies of recurrent affective episodes than non-T carriers during the cumulative period of good adherence, but not during those of poor adherence.
GADL1 rs17026688 and medication adherence jointly predict response to lithium maintenance treatment in Han Chinese BPI patients.
The environmental risk factors for schizophrenia can be summarized as operating either early in life or later nearer the onset of frank psychosis. This chapter focuses on the role of drug abuse as one of the later factors, and on how it interacts with familial and developmental factors. All the molecular genetic study results discussed are preliminary; both the positive and the negative findings need replication in larger samples. It is likely that certain drugs change the expressions of genes related to neurotransmitter systems such as dopamine or glutamic acid and also for transcription factors, cell proliferation, apoptosis, cell adhesion, and the synapse. Recent research suggests that dopamine sensitization may underlie both craving and the onset of drug-associated psychosis. A drug abuser with low liability to psychosis may use psychostimulant drugs regularly for longer periods without developing psychosis or, at worst may have just brief psychotic symptoms.
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