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Triaging plays an important role in providing suitable care to a large number of casualties in a disaster setting. A Pediatric Physiological and Anatomical Triage Score (PPATS) was developed as a new secondary triage method. This study aimed to validate the accuracy of the PPATS in identifying injured pediatric patients who are admitted at a high frequency and require immediate treatment in a disaster setting. The PPATS method was also compared with the current triage methods, such as the Triage Revised Trauma Score (TRTS).
A retrospective review of pediatric patients aged ≤15 years, registered in the Japan Trauma Data Bank (JTDB) from 2012 through 2016, was conducted and PPATS was performed. The PPATS method graded patients from zero to 22, and was calculated based on vital signs, anatomical abnormalities, and the need for life-saving interventions. It categorized patients based on their priority, and the intensive care unit (ICU)-indicated patients were assigned a PPATS ≥six. The accuracy of PPATS and TRTS in predicting the outcome of ICU-indicated patients was compared.
Of 2,005 pediatric patients, 1,002 (50%) were admitted to the ICU. The median age of the patients was nine years (interquartile range [IQR]: 6-13 years). The sensitivity and specificity of PPATS were 78.6% and 43.7%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic (ROC) curve (AUC) was larger for PPATS (0.61; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.59-0.63) than for TRTS (0.57; 95% CI, 0.56-0.59; P <.01). Regression analysis showed a significant correlation between PPATS and the Injury Severity Score (ISS; r2 = 0.353; P <.001), predicted survival rate (r2 = 0.396; P <.001), and duration of hospital stay (r2 = 0.252; P <.001).
The accuracy of PPATS for injured pediatric patients was superior to that of current secondary triage methods. The PPATS method is useful not only for identifying high-priority patients, but also for determining the priority ranking for medical treatments and evacuation.
Triaging plays an important role in providing suitable care to the largest number of casualties in a disaster setting. We developed the Pediatric Physiological and Anatomical Triage score (PPATS) as a new secondary triage method.
This study was performed to validate the accuracy of the PPATS in pediatric patients with burn injuries.
A retrospective review of pediatric patients with burn injuries younger than 15 years old registered in the Japan Trauma Databank from 2004 to 2016 was conducted. The PPATS, which was assigned scores from 0 to 22, was calculated based on vital signs, anatomical abnormalities, and need for life-saving intervention. The PPATS categorized the patients by their priority and defined the intensive care unit (ICU)-indicated patients as those with PPARSs more than 6. This study compared the accuracy of prediction of ICU-indicated patients between the PPATS and Triage Revised Trauma Score (TRTS).
Among 87 pediatric patients, 62 (71%) were admitted to the ICU. The median age was 3 years (interquartile range: 1 to 9 years old). The sensitivity and specificity of the PPATS were 74% and 36%, respectively. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve was not different between the PPTAS [0.51 (95% confidence interval: -0.51–1.48) and the TRTS [0.51 (-1.17–1.62), p=0.57]. Regression analysis showed a significant association between the PPATS and the Injury Severity Score (ISS) (r2=0.39, p<0.01). On the other hand, there is no association between the TRTS and the ISS (r2=0.00, p=0.79).
The accuracy of the PPATS was not superior to that of current secondary-triage methods. However, the PPATS had the advantage of objectively determining the triage priority ranking based on the severity of the pediatric patients with burn injuries.
We quantified an absolute imbalance of the medical risks and the support needs for children at each disaster-based hospital in Kanagawa immediately following the occurrence of a large earthquake by using the risk resource ratio (RRR) and need for medical resources (NMR).
The RRR and NMR of 33 disaster-based hospitals were estimated through dividing the estimated number of pediatric victims by the number of critically patients. We calculated the ratio of the NMR of each hospital.
The total number of pediatric victims in Kanagawa was estimated at 8,391. The total number of vacant beds for pediatric victims was 352. The median RRR and NMR of the total number of pediatric victims were 27 and 224. The median RRR and NMR of the number of critically ill pediatric patients were 27 and 12.
The absolute imbalance of the RRR and NMR for children in Kanagawa was quantified. This suggests that we might embark on preparedness strategies for children in advance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2018;13:672–676)
Little is known about the preparedness of hospitals to care for pediatric patients during a major incident in Japan. This study assessed the disaster preparedness of a children’s hospital in Japan by using a disaster drill.
Materials and Methods
We performed a triage drill with all hospitalized patients. The triage tags and medical records were reviewed retrospectively. We determined the efficacy of triage education, the validity of the Simple Triage and Rapid Treatment (START) method for children, and the potential need for evacuation through the disaster drill.
This study highlights 3 important issues about the hospital’s preparedness. First, it is difficult to promote disaster education for staff who are not well trained on handling disasters. Second, the START method is suitable for children older than 5 years, but it has a high rate of over-triaging among younger children. Third, approximately 40% of patients who are coded as immediate may require transportation resources in a hospital evacuation.
Our findings suggest that disaster preparedness, such as educating hospital staff regarding disasters and establishing evacuation systems for a number of pediatric patients when a disaster happens, is essential for caring for hospitalized children during a mass casualty incident. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2019;13:429-432)
Triage has an important role in providing suitable care to the largest number of casualties in a disaster setting, but there are no secondary triage methods suitable for children. This study developed a new secondary triage method named the Pediatric Physiological and Anatomical Triage Score (PPATS) and compared its accuracy with current triage methods.
A retrospective chart review of pediatric patients under 16 years old transferred to an emergency center from 2014 to 2016 was performed. The PPATS categorized the patients, defined the intensive care unit (ICU)-indicated patients if the category was highest, and compared the accuracy of prediction of ICU-indicated patients among PPATS, Physiological and Anatomical Triage (PAT), and Triage Revised Trauma Score (TRTS).
Among 137 patients, 24 (17.5%) were admitted to ICU. The median PPATS score of these patients was significantly higher than that of patients not admitted to ICU (11 [IQR: 9-13] versus three [IQR: 2-4]; P<.001). The optimal cut-off value of the PPTAS was six, yielding a sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of 95.8%, 86.7%, 60.5%, and 99.0%. The area under the receiver-operating characteristic curve (AUC) was larger for PPTAS than for PAT or TRTS (0.95 [95% CI, 0.87-1.00] versus 0.65 [95% CI, 0.58-0.72]; P<.001 and 0.79 [95% CI, 0.69-0.89]; P=.003, respectively). Regression analysis showed a significant association between the PPATS and the predicted mortality rate (r2=0.139; P<.001), ventilation time (r2=0.320; P<.001), ICU stay (r2=0.362; P<.001), and hospital stay (r2=0.308; P<.001).
The accuracy of PPATS was superior to other methods for secondary triage of children.
ToidaC, MugurumaT, AbeT, ShinoharaM, GakumazawaM, YogoN, ShirasawaA, MorimuraN. Introduction of Pediatric Physiological and Anatomical Triage Score in Mass-Casualty Incident. Prehosp Disaster Med. 2018;33(2):147–152.
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