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Early modern Europe was the scene of near-constant streams of religious exiles. When Protestantism emerged and was condemned as a heresy, followers were forced to flee from Catholic society. As the tide turned, many Catholics found themselves having to take flight from religious intolerance. Jews and Muslims, too, were forced from their country of birth as legislation or growing public pressure made exile inevitable. This collection of essays looks at the shared experience of exile across different groups during the sixteenth and seventeenth centuries. Contributors argue that exile is a useful analytical tool in the study of a wide variety of peoples previously examined in isolation.
The high-resolution He I photoelectron spectrum of C60 in the gas phase is reported and compared with the photoelectron spectrum of C60as a thin film prepared by vapor deposition (one to three monolayers) on gold. The spectra show low valence ionization bands that are very sharp and well-separated for a molecule of this size, consistent with the highly symmetric truncated icosahedral structure and theoretical calculations. The total band widths of the valence ionizations from the thin film samples are comparable to those from the gas phase species, showing that the electronic interactions between the molecules and with the surface do not significantly influence these measurements of the molecular electronic structure. The gas phase photoelectron spectra also show vibrational fine structure in the first and second ionization bands with spacings that are consistent with the two totally symmetric vibrational modes of C60. The first vertical ionization energy relative to the vacuum level is determined to be 7.61 ± 0.02 eV from these gas phase measurements.
Simulations of reflectance spectra and electric field distributions for vertical-cavity structures were used in the computer aided design of epitaxial mirrors and lasers. The binary GaAs/AlAs superlattice alloys and AlxGa1−xAs random alloys that compose these structures were grown by molecular beam epitaxy. Photoluminescence, photoreflectance, reflectance spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and double crystal x-ray diffractometry were applied to characterize cavity and Bragg mirror layer thicknesses and alloy composition.
AlGaAs/InGaAs/GaAs heteroepitaxial layers grown by molecular beam epitaxy were studied by cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The presence of waviness/roughness, fine periodic striation contrast due to Al composition oscillations, and defects were observed by TEM in selected samples. EDS on the TEM was of limited utility in determining the composition of thin epitaxial layers and in comparing the composition near and away from a defect. Arguments are presented to rationalize these results.
Interdiffusion and intermetallic formation in Ni-Sn interfacial zones are examined by X-ray diffraction in samples prepared by electroplating of Sn at room temperature. For the case of plating directly onto electropolished nickel, only very sluggish formation of Ni3Sn4 was observed at 190 C. In contrast, when the nickel surface is chemicaly or chemically-abrasively activated prior to plating, a thin layer of Ni3Sn forms at the initial interface at room temperature, and subsequent annealing at 100 and 190 C produces all intermetallics predicted by the equilibrium phase diagram including Ni3Sn, indicating that the absence of Ni3Sn usually observed arises from its failure to nucleate.
A new actuator for silicon micro-valves has been developed and tested. A thin film shape memory alloy provides for large deflections with high speed, low power, and small size. The actuator is batch fabricated with planar processes.