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β-glucan has been reported for its health benefits on blood lipids in hypercholesterolemic individuals for years. However, people has paid little attention to the effects in population with mildly hypercholesterolemic as well as the various delivering matrices of β-glucan. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to analyze the effects of β-glucan with different delivering matrices in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. After conducting a comprehensive search in Web of science, Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library, a total of 21 randomized controlled trials involving 1120 participants were identified to measure the pooled effect. The overall results indicated consuming in a doses of ≥3g/d of β-glucan for at least 3 weeks could significantly reduce TC (-0.27mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.33, -0.21, P<0.001) and LDL-c (-0.26mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.32, -0.20, P<0.001) compared with control group in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, while no significant difference was observed in TG (-0.03mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.11, 0.06, P=0.521) and HDL-c (0.01mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.03, 0.04, P=0.777). There was evidence for modest unexplained heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, β-glucan can significantly reduce risk factors like TC and LDL-c for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, furthermore, it appears that the effects of food matrices with both ‘solid-products’ and ‘liquid-products’ where β-glucan was incorporated into ranked as the best way to exert its beneficial properties, while ‘liquid’ and ‘solid’ products were ranked as the second, third position respectively.
Human infections with avian influenza A (H7N9) virus are associated with exposure to poultry and live poultry markets, but the evidence of person-to-person transmission remains limited. This study reports a suspected person-to-person transmission of H7N9 virus, and explores what factors influenced this transmission.
We interviewed 2 patients with H7N9 infection and their family members as well as health-care workers. Samples from the patients and environments were tested by real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction.
The index patient became ill 5 to 6 days after his last exposure to the poultry bought in the market of Weimiao town. The second patient, the sister of the index patient, who had sustained intensive and unprotected close contact with the index patient, had no exposure to poultry. This study documents that the H7N9 virus was transmitted directly from the index patient to his sister.
Our findings suggest that person-to-person transmission may be associated with sustained close contact with the patient during his onset of early stage, when the H7N9 viral shedding increases sharply.
An effective method that combines solvent extraction with ultrasonic irradiation was developed to recycle spent bleaching clay (SBC) from modern oil refinery plants. The principle of ‘waste to treasure’ was used to achieve the regenerated SBC. Various characterization techniques were applied to analyse and compare regenerated SBC and commercial bleaching clay (CBC). The structure of the regenerated SBC did not show any obvious change compared with that of CBC, but the Brunauer–Emmett–Teller-specific surface area (SBET) and pore-volume values of the regenerated SBC increased. At the same time, the parameters of the regenerated SBC reached national standards. In addition, the samples were used as low-cost adsorbents for the adsorption of methylene blue (MB) from water. The regenerated SBC had greater adsorption efficiency and cycle performance for MB than CBC. Hence, the SBC may be treated by ultrasonic radiation combined with extraction, and the regenerated SBC has better properties than CBC. This work opens up a new approach to the regeneration and utilization of SBC and raises the potential of ultrasonic irradiation as an environmentally friendly method to be applied to various regeneration systems.
Meditation is a type of mental training commonly applied in clinical settings and also practiced for general well-being. Brain functional connectivity (FC) patterns associated with meditation have revealed its brain mechanisms. However, the variety of FC methods applied has made it difficult to identify brain communication patterns associated with meditation. Here we carried out a coordinate-based meta-analysis to get preliminary evidence of meditation effects on changing brain network interactions. Fourteen seed-based, voxel-wise FC studies reported in 13 publications were reviewed; 10 studies with seeds in the default mode network (DMN) were meta-analyzed. Seed coordinates and the effect sizes in statistically significant regions were extracted, based on 170 subjects in meditation groups and 163 subjects in control groups. Seed-based d-mapping was used to analyze meditation versus control FC differences with DMN seeds. Meditation was associated with increased connectivity within DMN and between DMN and somatomotor network and with decreased connectivity between DMN and frontoparietal network (FPN) as well as ventral attention network (VAN). The pattern of decreased within-DMN FC and increased between-network FC (FPN and DAN with DMN) was more robust in highly experienced meditators compared to less experienced individuals. The identified neural network interactions may also promote meditation’s effectiveness in clinical interventions for treating physical and mental disorders.
Findings of epidemiological studies regarding the association between carrot consumption and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present study aimed to summarise the current epidemiological evidence concerning carrot intake and lung cancer risk with a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of case–control and prospective cohort studies, and searched PubMed and Embase databases from their inception to April 2018 without restriction by language. We also reviewed reference lists from included articles. Prospective cohort or case–control studies reporting OR or relative risk with the corresponding 95 % CI of the risk lung cancer for the highest compared with the lowest category of carrot intake. A total of eighteen eligible studies (seventeen case–control studies and one prospective cohort study) were included, involving 202 969 individuals and 5517 patients with lung cancer. The pooled OR of eighteen studies for lung cancer was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·74) by comparing the highest category with the lowest category of carrot consumption. Based on subgroup analyses for the types of lung cancer, we pooled that squamous cell carcinoma (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·19, 1·45), small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·12, 1·59), adenocarcinoma (OR 0·34, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·79), large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·10, 1·57), squamous and small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·45, 1·62), adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·20, 95 % CI 0·02, 1·70) and mixed types (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·81). Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the pooled OR. Integrated epidemiological evidence from observational studies supported the hypothesis that carrot consumption may decrease the risk of lung cancer, especially for adenocarcinoma.
Wire-shaped supercapacitors (WSSCs) hold great promise in portable and wearable electronics. Herein, a novel kind of high-performance coaxial WSSCs has been demonstrated and realized by scrolling porous carbon dodecahedrons/Al foil film electrode on vertical FeOOH nanosheets wrapping carbon fiber tows (FeOOH NSs/CFTs) yarn electrode. Remarkably, ionogel is utilized as solid-state electrolyte and exhibits a high thermal/electrochemical stability, which effectively ensures the great reliability and high operating voltage of coaxial WSSCs. Benefiting from the intriguing configuration, the coaxial WSSCs with superior flexibility act as efficient energy storage devices and exhibit low resistance, high volumetric energy density (3.2 mW h/cm3), and strong durability (82% after 10,000 cycles). Importantly, the coaxial WSSCs can be effectively recharged by harvesting sustainable wind source and repeatedly supply power to the lamp without a decline of electrochemical performance. Considering the facile fabrication technology with an outstanding performance, this work has paved the way for the integration of sustainable energy harvesting and wearable energy storage units.
We report on a combined experimental and numerical study of convective heat transfer along ratchet surfaces in vertical natural convection (VC). Due to the asymmetry of the convection system caused by the asymmetric ratchet-like wall roughness, two distinct states exist, with markedly different orientations of the large-scale circulation roll (LSCR) and different heat transport efficiencies. Statistical analysis shows that the heat transport efficiency depends on the strength of the LSCR. When a large-scale wind flows along the ratchets in the direction of their smaller slopes, the convection roll is stronger and the heat transport is larger than the case in which the large-scale wind is directed towards the steeper slope side of the ratchets. Further analysis of the time-averaged temperature profiles indicates that the stronger LSCR in the former case triggers the formation of a secondary vortex inside the roughness cavity, which promotes fluid mixing and results in a higher heat transport efficiency. Remarkably, this result differs from classical Rayleigh–Bénard convection (RBC) with asymmetric ratchets (Jiang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., vol. 120, 2018, 044501), wherein the heat transfer is stronger when the large-scale wind faces the steeper side of the ratchets. We reveal that the reason for the reversed trend for VC as compared to RBC is that the flow is less turbulent in VC at the same
. Thus, in VC the heat transport is driven primarily by the coherent LSCR, while in RBC the ejected thermal plumes aided by gravity are the essential carrier of heat. The present work provides opportunities for control of heat transport in engineering and geophysical flows.
The determination of low boron concentrations in silicate glasses by electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) remains a significant challenge. The internal interferences from the diffraction crystal, i.e. the Mo-B4C large d-spacing layered synthetic microstructure crystal, can be thoroughly diminished by using an optimized differential mode of pulse height analysis (PHA). Although potential high-order spectral interferences from Ca, Fe, and Mn on the BKα peak can be significantly reduced by using an optimized differential mode of PHA, a quantitative calibration of the interferences is required to obtain accurate boron concentrations in silicate glasses that contain these elements. Furthermore, the first-order spectral interference from ClL-lines is so strong that they hinder reliable EPMA of boron concentrations in Cl-bearing silicate glasses. Our tests also indicate that, due to the strongly curved background shape on the high-energy side of BKα, an exponential regression is better than linear regression for estimating the on-peak background intensity based on measured off-peak background intensities. We propose that an optimal analytical setting for low boron concentrations in silicate glasses (≥0.2 wt% B2O3) would best involve a proper boron-rich glass standard, a low accelerating voltage, a high beam current, a large beam size, and a differential mode of PHA.
We study the
-topological properties of the subset of non-uniform hyperbolic diffeomorphisms in a certain class of
partially hyperbolic symplectic systems which have bounded
distance to the identity. In this set, we prove the stability of non-uniform hyperbolicity as a function of the diffeomorphism and the measure, and the existence of an open and dense subset of continuity points for the center Lyapunov exponents. These results are generalized to the volume-preserving context.
A major uncertainty in the determination of the mass profile of the Milky Way using stellar kinematics in the halo is the poorly determined anisotropy parameter, , where σr is the Galactocentric radial velocity dispersion, and σθ and σφ are the tangential components of the velocity dispersion. We have used a sample of over 24,000 Galactic halo K giant and blue horizontal branch stars from the LAMOST stellar spectroscopic survey and SDSS/SEGUE, combined with proper motions from Gaia Data Release 2, to measure β(rgc) over a wide range of Galactocentric distances rgc from 5 to 80 kpc. Kinematic substructures have been carefully removed to reveal the underlying diffuse stellar halo prior to measuring β. We find that orbits are generally radial (β > 0) and β is constant out to distances of about 40 kpc, with a dependence on metallicity of the stars, such that β declines with lower metallicity. Similar behavior is seen in both the K giant and BHB samples.
Magnesium is a biodegradable material that has potential application in cardiovascular stent development: its excellent mechanical properties and blood compatibility make it highly useful in interventional therapy. Nevertheless, the following shortcomings restrict its further application: antihyperplasia function and promoting surface endothelialization. In this study, we immobilized a specific link peptide of endothelial cells, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV), onto polydopamine (PDA)-deposited Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy surface via covalent reaction to improve the growth of the endothelial cells. The PDA/REDV coating with optimized parameters maintained the good blood compatibility of the Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy at the biomimetic speed of the blood flow and significantly inhibited the growth of the vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage attachment/activation, which indicated its better functions in antihyperplasia and anti-inflammation. In particular, the PDA/REDV coating not only showed consistent results in promoting the attachment of endothelial cells as reported elsewhere, but also displayed the ability of enhancing the viability of endothelial cells (or inhibiting apoptosis), suggesting its pro-endothelialized function through different pathways. In summary, this PDA/REDV coating addressed the above-mentioned shortcomings of the magnesium alloy, which may promise its wider application.
This paper investigates a wideband and low axial ratio circularly polarized (CP) antenna, which is composed of a monopole on a novel polarization rotating reflective surface (PRRS) based on a corner-truncated artificial magnetic conductor (AMC) structure. By adjusting the dimensions of truncated corner properly, the PRRS has two polarization rotation (PR) frequency points. Then, a large PR band of 18% (5.55–6.65 GHz) can be achieved with two adjacent PR frequency points coming together. The profile of the newly PRRS is only0.04λ0. With corner-truncated AMC-based PRRS loading, a measured impedance bandwidth of 1.8 GHz (5.4–7.2 GHz) and the 3 dB axial ratio bandwidth of 1 GHz (5.55–6.65 GHz) could be obtained by the monopole antenna and validated by measurements. The values of AR were well below 1 dB at most of the CP region, which show a perfect CP performance. Moreover, the proposed antenna has exhibited a large axial ratio beamwidth in both the xoz- and yoz-planes and a peak gain of 6.1 dBic within the operational bandwidth.
Uniformly dispersed ultra-small hollow Co9S8 nanoparticles (<10 nm) (H-Co9S8@C) and solid Co9S8 nanoparticles (S-Co9S8@C) in porous carbon were fabricated separately by solvothermal and sulfur powder sulphurisation using Co-MOF-74 as the template. Owing to significant structural stability and uniform hollow structure of carbon-encapsulated Co9S8, the as-prepared H-Co9S8@C exhibited excellent lithium ion storage performance as an anode material. Worked in the voltage of 0.01–3.0 V, H-Co9S8@C revealed outstanding rate capability (850, 670, 613, 552, 457, and 347 mA h/g at 0.1, 0.2, 0.5, 1, 2, and 3 A/g, respectively), and high reversible capacity (after 250 cycles with a remained capacity of 900.5 mA h/g). Compared with S-Co9S8@C, over 50 cycles, the discharge specific capacity of H-Co9S8@C was still maintained at 655 mA h/g at a current density of 0.5 A/g, whereas the capacity of S-Co9S8@C declined rapidly to 160.4 mA h/g. The results showed that superior capacity, excellent rate performance, and highly stable cycle performance depended mainly on the hollow characteristic of Co9S8.
In this paper, an orthogonal crossover artificial bee colony (OCABC) algorithm based on orthogonal experimental design is presented and applied to infer the marine atmospheric duct using the refractivity from clutter technique, and the radar sea clutter power is simulated by the commonly used parabolic equation method. In order to test the accuracy of the OCABC algorithm, the measured data and the simulated clutter power with different noise levels are, respectively, utilized to estimate the evaporation duct and surface duct. The estimation results obtained by the proposed algorithm are also compared with those of the comprehensive learning particle swarm optimizer and the artificial bee colony algorithm combined with opposition-based learning and global best search equation. The comparison results demonstrate that the performance of proposed algorithm is better than those of the compared algorithms for the marine atmospheric duct estimation.
Health system reform is considered a tough issue worldwide. Great efforts have been made toward health system building and strengthening. However, it is still unclear which health system is appropriate for different countries. This study aimed to systematically compare the characteristics of the establishment periods between eighty-eight counties of National Health Service (NHS) and Social Health Insurance (SHI).
Forty-eight NHS countries and forty SHI countries with data availability were selected. The establishment years of current health systems and other eighteen indicators in economics, society, population and health during establishment periods were collected. Comparison between NHS and SHI was conducted by descriptive analysis of every indicator.
Most NHS countries were established during the cold war, while SHI had been set up since the cold war ended. The median of gross domestic product (GDP) per capita, urbanization rate and aging rate of SHI were USD 1535 in current dollars, 58.2 percent and 9.8 percent, respectively; compared with USD 1387, 41.2 percent and 4.7 percent, respectively of NHS. NHS countries had a smaller total population, lower mortality rate and elderly dependency ratio, while the birth rate and children's dependency ratio were higher. SHI countries showed a higher life expectancy and lower mortality rate in infants and children. NHS countries spent less in total health expenditure and a lower proportion of GDP. The median health expenditure per capita of SHI and NHS were USD 188 and USD 131 in current dollars, respectively. There was little difference among maternal mortality rates, and public and private health expenditure proportions.
NHS and SHI countries had different characteristics during the health system establishment periods. NHS was established earlier than SHI overall, so that SHI revealed higher levels in economic and social development. Health outcomes of NHS countries were slightly lower than SHI ones, while health expenditure was more in SHI countries. Specific social, economic, demographic and health conditions should be considered when countries are building their own health systems.
The effect of Si on Fe-rich intermetallic formation and the mechanical properties of the heat-treated squeeze cast Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn–0.7Fe alloy was investigated. Our results show that increasing the Si content promotes the formation of Al15(FeMn)3(SiCu)2 (α-Fe) and varies the morphology of T (Al20Cu3Mn2), where the size decreases and the amount increases. The major reason is that Si promotes heterogeneous nucleation of the intermetallics leading to finer precipitates. Si addition significantly enhances the ultimate tensile strength and yield strength of the alloys. The strengthening effect is mainly owing to the dispersoid strengthening by increasing the volume fraction of the T phase and less harmful α-Fe with a compact structure, which makes it more difficult for the cracks to initiate and propagate during tensile test. The squeeze cast Al–5.0Cu–0.6Mn–0.7Fe alloy with 1.1% Si shows significantly improved mechanical properties than the alloy without Si addition, which has a tensile strength of 386 MPa, yield strength of 280 MPa, and elongation of 8.6%.
This Research Communication describes the association between genetic variation within the prolactin (PRL) gene and the milk production traits of Italian Mediterranean river buffalo (Bufala mediterranea Italiana). High resolution melting (HRM) techniques were developed for genotyping 465 buffaloes. The association of genetic polymorphism with milk production traits was performed and subsequently the effects of parity and calving season were evaluated. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified at exons 2 and 5 and at introns 1 and 2. All the SNPs were in Hardy–Weinberg equilibrium, and statistical analysis showed that the polymorphism of intron1 was significantly (P < 0·05) associated with milk yield, milk protein content and peak milk yield. The average contribution of the intron1 genotype (r2intron1) to total phenotypic variance in milk production traits was 0·09, and the TT genotype showed lower values than CC and CT genotypes. A nonsynonymous SNP was identified in exon 2, which resulted in an amino acid change from arginine to cysteine. Moreover, the polymorphism of exon 2 was associated significantly with milk fat content (P < 0·05), and the buffaloes with TT genotype showed higher total fat content than the buffaloes with CT genotype. These findings provide evidence that polymorphisms of the buffalo PRL gene are associated with milk production traits and PRL can be used as a candidate gene for marker-assisted selection in Italian Mediterranean river buffalo breeding.
In this paper we present new petrological and whole-rock geochemical data for the Palaeoproterozoic metasedimentary rocks in the upper part of the Ji'an Group within the Jiao–Liao–Ji Belt, China, as well as zircon U–Pb age dates and in situ Lu–Hf isotope data. The new data improve our understanding of the original nature of the metasedimentary rocks, further providing insights into their tectonic setting and the evolutionary history of the northern segment of the Jiao–Liao–Ji Belt. The zircons can be divided into two groups, viz., one of magmatic origin and the other of metamorphic origin. Zircon U–Pb dating gave mean or statistical peak ages for the magmatic zircons at 2035, 2082, 2178, 2343–2421, 2451–2545, 2643–2814 and 2923–3446 Ma, and mean peak ages for the metamorphic zircons at 1855 and 1912 Ma, which indicate a maximum depositional age of 2.03 Ga and two-stage metamorphic events at c. 1.91 and 1.85 Ga for the metasedimentary rocks. Geochemical data show that (1) the protoliths of these rocks were mainly sandstones, greywackes and claystones, together with some shales; (2) the main sources of the sedimentary material were Palaeoproterozoic granites and acid volcanic rocks, with minor contributions from Archaean granitic rocks; and (3) the sediments were deposited in an active continental margin setting. Moreover, along the northeastern margin of the Eastern Block of the North China Craton there is evidence of ancient crustal materials as old as 3.76 Ga, and multiple crustal growth events at 3.23–3.05, 2.80–2.65, 2.54–2.45 and 2.28–2.08 Ga.
Although alterations in the dendritic spine density in the brain regions may play a role in the stress-induced depression-like phenotype, the precise mechanisms are unknown. The aim was to investigate the role of spine density in the brain regions after chronic social defeat stress (CSDS).
We examined dendritic spine density in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), CA1, CA3, dentate gyrus (DG) of hippocampus, nucleus accumbens (NAc), and ventral tegmental area (VTA) of susceptible and resilient mice after CSDS.
Spine density in the prelimbic area of mPFC, CA3, and DG in the susceptible group, but not resilient group, was significantly lower than control group. In contrast, spine density in the NAc and VTA in the susceptible group, but not resilient group, was significantly higher than control group.
The results suggest that regional differences in spine density may contribute to resilience versus susceptibility in mice subjected to CSDS.