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Schizophrenia is considered a polygenic disorder. People with schizophrenia and those with genetic high risk of schizophrenia (GHR) have presented with similar neurodevelopmental deficits in hemispheric asymmetry. The potential associations between neurodevelopmental abnormalities and schizophrenia-related risk genes in both schizophrenia and those with GHR remains unclear.
To investigate the shared and specific alternations to the structural network in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR. And to identify an association between vulnerable structural network alternation and schizophrenia-related risk genes.
A total of 97 participants with schizophrenia, 79 participants with GHR and 192 healthy controls, underwent diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) scans at a single site. We used graph theory to characterise hemispheric and whole-brain structural network topological metrics. For 26 people in the schizophrenia group and 48 in the GHR group with DTI scans we also calculated their schizophrenia-related polygenic risk scores (SZ-PRSs). The correlations between alterations to the structural network and SZ-PRSs were calculated. Based on the identified genetic–neural association, bioinformatics enrichment was explored.
There were significant hemispheric asymmetric deficits of nodal efficiency, global and local efficiency in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Hemispheric asymmetric deficit of local efficiency was significantly positively correlated with SZ-PRSs in the schizophrenia and GHR groups. Bioinformatics enrichment analysis showed that these risk genes may be linked to signal transduction, neural development and neuron structure. The schizophrenia group showed a significant decrease in the whole-brain structural network.
The shared asymmetric deficits in people with schizophrenia and those with GHR, and the association between anomalous asymmetry and SZ-PRSs suggested a vulnerability imaging marker regulated by schizophrenia-related risk genes. Our findings provide new insights into asymmetry regulated by risk genes and provides a better understanding of the genetic–neural pathological underpinnings of schizophrenia.
We report a numerical study of Rayleigh–Bénard convection through random porous media using pore-scale modelling, focusing on the Lagrangian dynamics of fluid particles and heat transfer for varied porosities $\phi$. Due to the interaction between the porous medium and the coherent flow structures, the flow is found to be highly heterogeneous, consisting of convection channels with strong flow strength and stagnant regions with low velocities. The modifications of flow field due to porous structure have a significant influence on the dynamics of fluid particles. Evaluation of the particle displacement along the trajectory reveals the emergence of anomalous transport for long times as $\phi$ is decreased, which is associated with the long-time correlation of Lagrangian velocity of the fluid. As porosity is decreased, the cross-correlation between the vertical velocity and temperature fluctuation is enhanced, which reveals a mechanism to enhance the heat transfer in porous-media convection.
We consider the fractional elliptic problem:
where B1 is the unit ball in ℝN, N ⩾ 3, s ∈ (0, 1) and p > (N + 2s)/(N − 2s). We prove that this problem has infinitely many solutions with slow decay O(|x|−2s/(p−1)) at infinity. In addition, for each s ∈ (0, 1) there exists Ps > (N + 2s)/(N − 2s), for any (N + 2s)/(N − 2s) < p < Ps, the above problem has a solution with fast decay O(|x|2s−N). This result is the extension of the work by Dávila, del Pino, Musso and Wei (2008, Calc. Var. Partial Differ. Equ. 32, no. 4, 453–480) to the fractional case.
We aim to determine the correlation between parental rearing, personality traits, and obsessive–compulsive disorder (OCD) in different quantiles. In particular, we created an intermediary effect model in which parental rearing affects OCD through personality traits. All predictors were measured at the time of the survey, comprising parental rearing (paternal rearing and maternal rearing), demographics (grade and gender), and personality traits (neuroticism, extroversion, and psychoticism). These results suggest that (a) paternal emotional warmth was negatively correlated with OCD at the 0.40–0.80 quantile, while maternal emotional warmth was positively correlated with the OCD at the 0.45–0.69 quantile. (b) The correlation between negative parental rearing and OCD ranged from the 0.67 to 0.95 quantile for paternal punishment, 0.14–0.82 quantile for paternal overprotection, 0.05–0.36 and >0.50 quantile for maternal over-intervention and overprotection, and 0.08–0.88 quantile for maternal rejection. (c) Extroversion, neuroticism, and psychoticism were not only associated with OCD in a particular quantile but also mediated between parental rearing (namely parental emotional warmth, paternal punishment, paternal overprotection, maternal rejection, maternal over-intervention, and overprotection) and OCD. These findings provide targets for early interventions of OCD to improve the form of family education and personality traits and warrant validation.
Common vetch (Vicia sativa) is an important forage and green manure crop that is widely cultivated around the world. However, the large number of subspecies and accessions of common vetch has made taxonomic research on this species difficult. Pollen morphology data can provide important evidence in the study of plant phylogeny. Therefore, in this research, light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy were used to observe seven morphological traits of pollens from 22 common vetch accessions, and residual maximum likelihood and pattern analysis was conducted. The results showed that the pollen grains of the 22 accessions were all monad pollen and the polar view revealed three-lobed circular and triangular shapes, while the equatorial view mainly revealed an oblate shape; only one accession showed an oblate spherical shape. All accessions were 3-zonocolporate and the colpus length extended close to the poles. The polar axis length was (19.39 ± 0.97)–(42.12 ± 0.76) μm and the equatorial axis length was (35.97 ± 1.27)–(45.25 ± 0.81) μm. We found that qualitative traits of pollen shape, aperture polar view and ornamentation were highly stable. Among them, polar axis length, equatorial axis length and colpus length and width had significant differences among the accessions. The ratios of the equatorial and polar axes had significant differences among the subspecies. This trait information could be used for the classification and identification of common vetch accessions and subspecies.
The prognostic factor for in-hospital mortality in tuberculosis (TB) patients requiring intensive care unit (ICU) care remains unclear. Therefore, a retrospective study was conducted aiming to estimate the in-hospital mortality rate and the risk factors for mortality in a high-burden setting. All patients with culture-confirmed TB that were admitted to the ICU of the hospital between March 2012 and April 2019 were identified retrospectively. Data, such as demographic characteristics, comorbidities, laboratory measures and mortality, were obtained from medical records. The Cox proportional hazards regression model was used to identify prognostic factors that influence in-hospital mortality. A total of 82 ICU patients with confirmed TB were included in the analysis, and 22 deaths were observed during the hospital stay, 21 patients died in the ICU. In the multivariable model adjusted for sex and age, the levels of serum albumin and white blood cell (WBC) count were significantly associated with mortality in TB patients requiring ICU care (all P < 0.01), the hazard ratios were 0.8 (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.7–0.9) per 1 g/l and 1.1 (95% CI: 1.0–1.2) per 1 × 109/l, respectively. In conclusion, in-hospital mortality remains high in TB patients requiring ICU care. Low serum albumin level and high WBC count significantly impact the risk of mortality in these TB patients in China.
Hypertension represents one of the most common pre-existing conditions and comorbidities in Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients. To explore whether hypertension serves as a risk factor for disease severity, a multi-centre, retrospective study was conducted in COVID-19 patients. A total of 498 consecutively hospitalised patients with lab-confirmed COVID-19 in China were enrolled in this cohort. Using logistic regression, we assessed the association between hypertension and the likelihood of severe illness with adjustment for confounders. We observed that more than 16% of the enrolled patients exhibited pre-existing hypertension on admission. More severe COVID-19 cases occurred in individuals with hypertension than those without hypertension (21% vs. 10%, P = 0.007). Hypertension associated with the increased risk of severe illness, which was not modified by other demographic factors, such as age, sex, hospital geological location and blood pressure levels on admission. More attention and treatment should be offered to patients with underlying hypertension, who usually are older, have more comorbidities and more susceptible to cardiac complications.
Although the progression of invasive aspergillosis (IA) shares some risk factors in the development of active pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB), however, the prevalence of IA in suspected PTB remains unclear. During a period of 1 year (from January 2016 to December 2016), consecutive patients with suspected PTB were included in a referral TB hospital. Data, including demographic information and underlying diseases, were collected from medical records. PTB were all confirmed by mycobacterial culture (Lowenstein–Jensen medium). IA were diagnosed as proven or probable according to the criteria of the 2008 EORTC/MSG definitions. A descriptive analysis was performed to estimate the corresponding prevalence. During the study year, 1507 patients have a positive mycobacterial culture, with a mean age of 45.6 (s.d. 19.9) years old and a female:male ratio of 1:4. Among the 82 patients with non-tuberculous mycobacterial diseases, two patients (2.44%, 95% CI 0.67–8.46%) were diagnosed as IA (one proven and one probable); two probable IA patients (0.15%, 95% CI 0.04–0.55%) were diagnosed in PTB patients (n = 1315), and all were retreatment cases. In addition, all four IA patients (100%) exhibited cavities in both lobes on radiograph. In China, the prevalence of IA is low in active PTB patients. However, when high-risk factors for IA are encountered in PTB patients, further investigations are required and empirically treatment for IA might be warranted.
Rare earth elements (REE) in marine minerals have been widely used as proxies for the redox status of depositional and/or diagenetic environments. Phosphate nodules, which are thought to grow within decimetres below the sediment–water interface and to be able to scavenge REE from the ambient pore water, are potential archives of subtle changes in REE compositions. Whether their REE signals represent specific redox conditions or they can be used to track the overlying water chemistry is worth exploring. Through in situ laser ablation – inductively coupled plasma – mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS), we investigate the REE compositions of a drill-core-preserved phosphate nodule from the lower Cambrian Niutitang Formation in the Daotuo area, northeastern Guizhou Province, South China. REE distributions of the nodule show concentric layers with systematic decreases in Ce anomalies (Ce/Ce*) from the core to the rim. The lowest Ce/Ce* appears in the outer rim where REE concentrations are relatively high. These results are interpreted to reflect REE exchange with pore water at a very early stage or bathymetric variation during apatite precipitation. The origin of the shale-normalized middle REE (MREE) enrichment in our sample is less constrained. Possible driving factors include preferential MREE substitution for Ca in the apatite lattice, degradation of organic matter and deposition beneath a ferruginous zone. Although speculative, the last possibility is consistent with the chemically stratified model for early Cambrian oceans, in which dynamic fluctuations of the chemocline provided an ideal depositional context for phosphogenesis.
In this paper, the antenna reconfigurable technology is used to redesign a whip antenna in different sub-bands of high frequency (HF). According to the electrical characteristics of the antenna, on the one hand, two different radiation whip heights are designed to solve the problem of pattern up-warping in the high-frequency band; on the other hand, a common upper loading network and several different adjusting inductors and matching networks are designed for each sub-band to achieve high gain and efficiency when keeping good voltage standing wave ratio (VSWR) characteristics. Five sub-bands of the 10-m HF whip antenna are reconfigured through the actual selection of radiation height, adjusting inductance, and matching network by radio frequency (RF) switch. The antenna load and matching network are optimized by grasshopper optimization algorithm (GOA), and integrated into the antenna body by using the printed circuit technology. The scaled prototype of 1 m frequency reconfigurable antenna is manufactured and tested, which shows that the VSWR is all <3 with an average value of 2.14; the gain is all >−2.5 dB with an average value of 3.90 dB; the efficiency is all >18.2% with an average value of 71.59%, and the patterns all keep horizontal omnidirectional without the phenomenon of up-warping.
The Jiaojia site is the earliest city in the Haidai area of China, about 5000 years old. To obtain more accurately the beginning and end of this site, radiocarbon accelerator mass spectrometry (14C AMS) measurements, along with stable carbon and nitrogen isotope data, were collected from 13 bone samples. According to the measured dates, human diet was dominated by C4-based plants, and the Jiaojia site appeared before 2900 BC.
The sedimentologic fingerprinting in detrital deposit is vital to reconstruct sedimentary environments and discriminate sources. In this study, grain size and microtextural characteristics of quartz from the late Pleistocene hard clay in the Yangtze River delta (YRD) were analyzed by using a laser particle size analyzer and a scanning electron microscope. Subaqueous quartz from the Yangtze River and Yellow River sediments and eolian quartz from the Chinese Loess Plateau loess were also analyzed by scanning electron microscopy to obtain the microtextural characteristics. Quartz grains of the hard clay were characterized by poor sorting, fine skew, bimodal grain-size distributions, and numerous eolian microtextures. The comparison of the quartz grain characteristics of the hard clay with these in eolian loess indicated that the hard clay belonged to an eolian deposition. Moreover, the fine quartz grains of the hard clay were dominated by eolian microtextural characteristics, representing long-distance transportation. The coarse quartz grains of the hard clay exhibited more subaqueous microtextural characteristics, which indicated that the coarse fraction of the hard clay was derived from the proximal source regions in the YRD. The determination of buried eolian deposition with multiple sources in the YRD implies a southward westerly jet stream, strengthened eolian dust transportation, and extensive aridification in the YRD due to the increased Northern Hemisphere ice sheets in Marine Oxygen Isotope Stage 2.
The effects of macronutrient intake on obesity are controversial. This research aims to investigate the associations between macronutrient intake and new-onset overweight/obesity. The relationship between the consumption of carbohydrate and total fat and obesity was assessed by the multivariable Cox model in this 11-year cohort, which included 6612 adults (3291 men and 3321 women) who were free of overweight and obesity at baseline. The dietary intake was recorded using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days. Moreover, substitution models were developed to distinguish the effects of macronutrient composition alteration from energy intake modification. During 7·5 person years (interquartile range 4·3, 10·8) of follow-up, 1807 participants became overweight or obese. After adjusting for risk factors, the hazard ratio (HR) of overweight/obesity in extreme quintiles of fat was 1·48 (quintile 5 v. quintile 1, 95 % CI 1·16, 1·89; Ptrend = 0·02) in women. Additionally, replacing 5 % of energy from carbohydrate with equivalent energy from fat was associated with an estimated 4·3 % (HR 1·043, 95 % CI 1·007, 1·081) increase in overweight/obesity in women. Moreover, dietary carbohydrate was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (quintile 5 v. quintile 1, HR 0·70, 95 % CI 0·55, 0·89; Ptrend = 0·02) in women. Total fat was related to a higher risk of overweight/obesity, whereas high carbohydrate intake was related to a lower risk of overweight/obesity in women, which was not observed in men.
β-Glucan has been reported for its health benefits on blood lipids in hypercholesterolaemic individuals for years. However, people have paid little attention to the effects of β-glucan in populations with mild hypercholesterolaemia as well as the various delivering matrices. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to analyse the effects of β-glucan with different delivering matrices in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals. After conducting a comprehensive search in Web of Science, PubMed, Scopus and Cochrane Library, a total of twenty-one randomised controlled trials involving 1120 participants were identified to measure the pooled effect. The overall results indicated that consuming a dose of ≥3 g/d of β-glucan for at least 3 weeks could significantly reduce total cholesterol (TC) (−0·27 mmol/l, 95 % CI −0·33, −0·21, P < 0·001) and LDL-cholesterol (−0·26 mmol/l, 95% CI −0·32, −0·20, P < 0·001) compared with the control group in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals, while no significant difference was observed in TAG (−0·03 mmol/l, 95% CI −0·11, 0·06, P = 0·521) and HDL-cholesterol (0·01 mmol/l, 95% CI −0·03, 0·04, P = 0·777). There was evidence for modest unexplained heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, β-glucan can significantly reduce risk factors like TC and LDL-cholesterol for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolaemic individuals; furthermore, it appears that the effects of food matrices with both ‘solid products’ and ‘liquid products’ where β-glucan was incorporated into were ranked as the best way to exert its beneficial properties, while ‘liquid’ and ‘solid’ products were ranked as the second and third positions, respectively.
The Permian metavolcano–sedimentary sequence of the Jianglang and Taka domes in the southern Songpan–Ganzi Orogen is composed of bedded marble and sandwiched metabasalt. This study presents geochemistry, C–O–Nd isotope systematics and zircon U–Pb geochronology data to explore the formation mechanism and tectonic setting of its protolith. The marble samples have high δ13CV-PDB (4.0 ‰ to −0.1 ‰) and δ18OV-SMOW (16.3 ‰ to 13.6 ‰) values, with similar εNd(t) values (−5.3 to −7.2) to Late Permian conodonts. They display seawater-like features, e.g. superchondritic Y/Ho ratios, negative Ce and positive La, Gd and Y anomalies, indicating a marine carbonate protolith in oxygen-rich palaeoseawater. Their pronounced positive Eu anomalies suggest a contribution (5 % to 1 %) of submarine high-T hydrothermal fluids. The metabasalt samples show low SiO2, high Fe2O3T and MgO contents. They have low La/Sm, (Th/Ta)PM and (La/Nb)PM ratios, without correlations between MgO and other major/trace elements. These signatures could be attributed to insignificant fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. Their rare earth elements (REE) patterns, trace element profiles and trace element ratios are comparable to those of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting a depleted MORB-type mantle reservoir. Melt modelling illustrates low degrees (<10 %) of partial melting in the spinel stability field at a depth of 30–60 km. Moreover, the metabasalt contains 2453.7–258.9 Ma detrital zircons significantly related to the Palaeoproterozoic crystalline basement, Rodinia supercontinent, Caledonian events and c. 260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province. Combined with previous studies, we advocate that the investigated metavolcano–sedimentary suquence was most likely formed during the Late Permian in a mature back-arc basin of the Palaeo-Tethys ocean.
Asperger's disorder is characterized by marked difficulties in social interactions, which might be the result of a specific deficit in theory of mind and lack of social skills. Treatment programs based on cognitive-behavioral therapy (CBT) principles have shown effectiveness in improving the theory of mind and social skills for children and adolescents with Asperger's disorder. This study intends to examine the efficacy of a cognitive-behavioral group therapy (CBGT) program designed to promote the theory of mind and social skills for Taiwanese school-age children with Asperger's disorder.
Eight Taiwanese children aged 7-10 years with average intelligence participated in this program which included 10 weekly sessions with 80 minutes each. The behaviors of these participants were evaluated and compared before and after the training. Outcome measures consisted of (1) Australian Scale for Asperger's syndrome; (2) behavior observation; (3) theory of mind task; and (4) Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scales.
Pre-post comparison showed significant decreases in parental ratings in symptom severity (t=-5.59, p<.01), with a significant improvement in their children's social-emotional ability (t=-4.69, p<.01) and communication skills (t=-2.98, p<.01). Behavior observation also indicated improvement in theory of mind ability. However, there were neither significant difference in participants' performance on the theory of mind task nor in teachers' ratings of symptom severity and social skills.
Findings of this study partially support the immediate effect of this CBGT program for Taiwanese children with Asperger's disorder, but with limited generalization effect across situations.
To determine whether a potassium dihydrogen phosphate (KDP) surface mitigated by micro-milling would potentially threaten downstream optics, we calculated the light-field modulation based on angular spectrum diffraction theory, and performed a laser damage test on downstream fused silica. The results showed that the downstream light intensification caused by a Gaussian mitigation pit of 800 μm width and 10 μm depth reached a peak value near the KDP rear surface, decreased sharply afterward, and eventually kept stable with the increase in downstream distance. The solved peak value of light intensification exceeded 6 in a range 8–19 mm downstream from the KDP rear surface, which is the most dangerous for downstream optics. Laser damage sites were then induced on the fused silica surface in subsequent laser damage tests. When the distance downstream was greater than 44 mm with a downstream light intensification of less than 3, there were no potential damage threats to downstream optics. The study proves that a mitigated KDP surface can cause laser damage to downstream optical components, to which attention should be paid in an actual application. Through this work, we find that the current manufacturing process and the mitigation index still need to be improved. The research methods and calculation models are also of great reference significance for related studies like optics mitigation and laser damage.
In this special collection, we address the origin and dispersal of the Transeurasian languages, i.e. Japonic, Koreanic, Tungusic, Mongolic and Turkic, from an interdisciplinary perspective. Our key objective is to effectively synthesize linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence in a single approach, for which we use the term ‘triangulation’. The 10 articles collected in this volume contribute to the question of whether and to what extent the early spread of Transeurasian languages was driven by agriculture in general, and by economic reliance on millet cultivation in particular.
The Tungusic languages form a language family spoken in Xinjiang, Siberia, Manchuria and the Russian Far East. There is a general consensus that these languages are genealogically related and descend from a common ancestral language, conventionally called ‘Proto-Tungusic’. However, the exact geographical location where the ancestral speakers of Proto-Tungusic originated from is subject to debate. Here we take an unprecedented approach to this problem, by integrating linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence in a single study. Our analysis of ancient DNA suggests genetic continuity between an ancient Amur genetic lineage and the contemporary speakers of the Tungusic languages. Adding an archaeolinguistic perspective, we infer that the most plausible homeland for the speakers of Proto-Tungusic is the region around Lake Khanka in the Russian Far East. Our study pushes the field forward in answering the tantalizing question about the location of the Tungusic homeland and in illustrating how these three disciplines can converge into a holistic approach to the human past.