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The effects of macronutrient intake on obesity are controversial. This research aims to investigate the associations between macronutrient intake and new-onset overweight/obesity. The relationship between the consumption of carbohydrate and total fat and obesity was assessed by the multivariable Cox model in this 11-year cohort, which included 6,612 adults (3,321 women and 3,291 men) who were free of overweight and obesity at baseline. The dietary intake was recorded using a 24-h recall method for three consecutive days. Moreover, substitution models were developed to distinguish the effects of macronutrient composition alteration from energy intake modification. During 7.5 person years (IQR 4.3-10.8) of follow-up, 1,807 participants became overweight or obesity. After adjusting for risk factors, the HR of overweight/obesity in extreme quintiles of fat was 1.48 (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, 95% CI, 1.16-1.89; Ptrend =0.02) in women. Additionally, replacing 5% of energy from carbohydrate with equivalent energy from fat was associated with an estimated 4.3% (HR, 1.043; 95% CI, 1.007-1.081) increase in overweight/obesity in women. Moreover, dietary carbohydrate was inversely associated with overweight/obesity (quintile 5 vs quintile 1, HR, 0.70; 95% CI, 0.55-0.89; Ptrend =0.02) in women. Total fat was related to a higher risk of overweight/obesity, whereas high carbohydrate intake was related to a lower risk of overweight/obesity in women, which was not observed in men.
β-glucan has been reported for its health benefits on blood lipids in hypercholesterolemic individuals for years. However, people has paid little attention to the effects in population with mildly hypercholesterolemic as well as the various delivering matrices of β-glucan. Our objective was to perform a meta-analysis to analyze the effects of β-glucan with different delivering matrices in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals. After conducting a comprehensive search in Web of science, Pubmed, Scopus and Cochrane library, a total of 21 randomized controlled trials involving 1120 participants were identified to measure the pooled effect. The overall results indicated consuming in a doses of ≥3g/d of β-glucan for at least 3 weeks could significantly reduce TC (-0.27mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.33, -0.21, P<0.001) and LDL-c (-0.26mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.32, -0.20, P<0.001) compared with control group in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, while no significant difference was observed in TG (-0.03mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.11, 0.06, P=0.521) and HDL-c (0.01mmol/L, 95%CI: -0.03, 0.04, P=0.777). There was evidence for modest unexplained heterogeneity in the meta-analysis. In conclusion, β-glucan can significantly reduce risk factors like TC and LDL-c for CVD in mildly hypercholesterolemic individuals, furthermore, it appears that the effects of food matrices with both ‘solid-products’ and ‘liquid-products’ where β-glucan was incorporated into ranked as the best way to exert its beneficial properties, while ‘liquid’ and ‘solid’ products were ranked as the second, third position respectively.
The Permian metavolcano–sedimentary sequence of the Jianglang and Taka domes in the southern Songpan–Ganzi Orogen is composed of bedded marble and sandwiched metabasalt. This study presents geochemistry, C–O–Nd isotope systematics and zircon U–Pb geochronology data to explore the formation mechanism and tectonic setting of its protolith. The marble samples have high δ13CV-PDB (4.0 ‰ to −0.1 ‰) and δ18OV-SMOW (16.3 ‰ to 13.6 ‰) values, with similar εNd(t) values (−5.3 to −7.2) to Late Permian conodonts. They display seawater-like features, e.g. superchondritic Y/Ho ratios, negative Ce and positive La, Gd and Y anomalies, indicating a marine carbonate protolith in oxygen-rich palaeoseawater. Their pronounced positive Eu anomalies suggest a contribution (5 % to 1 %) of submarine high-T hydrothermal fluids. The metabasalt samples show low SiO2, high Fe2O3T and MgO contents. They have low La/Sm, (Th/Ta)PM and (La/Nb)PM ratios, without correlations between MgO and other major/trace elements. These signatures could be attributed to insignificant fractional crystallization and crustal contamination. Their rare earth elements (REE) patterns, trace element profiles and trace element ratios are comparable to those of mid-ocean ridge basalt (MORB), suggesting a depleted MORB-type mantle reservoir. Melt modelling illustrates low degrees (<10 %) of partial melting in the spinel stability field at a depth of 30–60 km. Moreover, the metabasalt contains 2453.7–258.9 Ma detrital zircons significantly related to the Palaeoproterozoic crystalline basement, Rodinia supercontinent, Caledonian events and c. 260 Ma Emeishan large igneous province. Combined with previous studies, we advocate that the investigated metavolcano–sedimentary suquence was most likely formed during the Late Permian in a mature back-arc basin of the Palaeo-Tethys ocean.
The Tungusic languages form a language family spoken in Xinjiang, Siberia, Manchuria and the Russian Far East. There is a general consensus that these languages are genealogically related and descend from a common ancestral language, conventionally called ‘Proto-Tungusic’. However, the exact geographical location where the ancestral speakers of Proto-Tungusic originated from is subject to debate. Here we take an unprecedented approach to this problem, by integrating linguistic, archaeological and genetic evidence in a single study. Our analysis of ancient DNA suggests genetic continuity between an ancient Amur genetic lineage and the contemporary speakers of the Tungusic languages. Adding an archaeolinguistic perspective, we infer that the most plausible homeland for the speakers of Proto-Tungusic is the region around Lake Khanka in the Russian Far East. Our study pushes the field forward in answering the tantalizing question about the location of the Tungusic homeland and in illustrating how these three disciplines can converge into a holistic approach to the human past.
Owing to the development of sequencing technology, paleogenomics has become an important source of information on human migration and admixture, complementing findings from archaeology and linguistics. In this study, we retrieved the whole genome and Y chromosome lineage from late Neolithic Honghe individuals in the Middle Amur region in order to provide a bioarchaeological perspective on the origin and expansion of Transeurasian languages in the Amur River basin. Our genetic analysis reveals that the population of the Amur River basin has a stable and continuous genetic structure from the Mesolithic Age up to date. Integrating linguistic and archaeological evidence, we support the hypothesis that the expansion of the Transeurasian language system in the Amur River basin is related to the agricultural development and expansion of the southern Hongshan culture. The spread of agricultural technology resulted in the addition of millet cultivation to the original subsistence mode of fishing and hunting. It played a vital role in the expansion of the population of the region, which in its turn has contributed to the spread of language.
Findings of epidemiological studies regarding the association between carrot consumption and lung cancer risk remain inconsistent. The present study aimed to summarise the current epidemiological evidence concerning carrot intake and lung cancer risk with a meta-analysis. We conducted a meta-analysis of case–control and prospective cohort studies, and searched PubMed and Embase databases from their inception to April 2018 without restriction by language. We also reviewed reference lists from included articles. Prospective cohort or case–control studies reporting OR or relative risk with the corresponding 95 % CI of the risk lung cancer for the highest compared with the lowest category of carrot intake. A total of eighteen eligible studies (seventeen case–control studies and one prospective cohort study) were included, involving 202 969 individuals and 5517 patients with lung cancer. The pooled OR of eighteen studies for lung cancer was 0·58 (95 % CI 0·45, 0·74) by comparing the highest category with the lowest category of carrot consumption. Based on subgroup analyses for the types of lung cancer, we pooled that squamous cell carcinoma (OR 0·52, 95 % CI 0·19, 1·45), small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·43, 95 % CI 0·12, 1·59), adenocarcinoma (OR 0·34, 95 % CI 0·15, 0·79), large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·40, 95 % CI 0·10, 1·57), squamous and small-cell carcinoma (OR 0·85, 95 % CI 0·45, 1·62), adenocarcinoma and large-cell carcinoma (OR 0·20, 95 % CI 0·02, 1·70) and mixed types (OR 0·61, 95 % CI 0·46, 0·81). Exclusion of any single study did not materially alter the pooled OR. Integrated epidemiological evidence from observational studies supported the hypothesis that carrot consumption may decrease the risk of lung cancer, especially for adenocarcinoma.
Three-dimensional graphene (3D-GN)/Cu/Fe3O4 composite support materials were synthesized by a modified chemical reduction method using graphene oxide precursor. A 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensor was prepared by coating the electrode with laccase. The electrochemical properties of the biosensor were investigated by cyclic voltammetry (CV) and differential pulse voltammetry using potassium ferricyanide, phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) solution, and bisphenol A (BPA) solution. The current response of 3D-GN/Cu/Fe3O4 biosensors presents a remarkable sensitivity based on CV. The linear range of BPA is 7.2–18 μM using differential pulse voltammetry in PBS solution (pH = 4.0). A linear fitting equation of the laccase biosensor was observed for the current response as a function of BPA concentration. The detection limit was decreased to 1.7 μM. The detection approach herein turns out to be highly sensitive, has a wide linear range, and exhibits excellent stability.
Deep learning methods have been applied to randomly generate images, such as in fashion, furniture design. To date, consideration of human aspects which play a vital role in a design process has not been given significant attention in deep learning approaches. In this paper, results are reported from a human- in-the-loop design method where brain EEG signals are used to capture preferable design features. In the framework developed, an encoder extracting EEG features from raw signals recorded from subjects when viewing images from ImageNet are learned. Secondly, a GAN model is trained conditioned on the encoded EEG features to generate design images. Thirdly, the trained model is used to generate design images from a person's EEG measured brain activity in the cognitive process of thinking about a design. To verify the proposed method, a case study is presented following the proposed approach. The results indicate that the method can generate preferred designs styles guided by the preference related brain signals. In addition, this method could also help improve communication between designers and clients where clients might not be able to express design requests clearly.
The objective of the present study was to investigate the effect of curcumin on insulin resistance (IR) and hepatic lipid accumulation in intra-uterine growth restriction (IUGR). Rats with a normal birth weight (NBW) or IUGR were fed basic diets (NBW and IUGR groups) or basic diets supplemented with curcumin (NBW-C and IUGR-C groups) from 6 to 12 weeks. Rats in the IUGR group showed higher levels of glucose and homeostasis model assessment for insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) (P < 0·05) than in the NBW group. The livers of IUGR rats exhibited higher (P < 0·05) concentration of TAG and lower (P < 0·05) activities of lipolysis enzymes compared with the normal rats. In response to dietary curcumin supplementation, concentrations of serum insulin, glucose and HOMA-IR, pyruvate, TAG, total cholesterol and NEFA in the liver were decreased (P < 0·05). The concentrations of glycogen and activities of lipolysis enzymes in the liver were increased (P < 0·05) in the IUGR-C group compared with the IUGR group. These results were associated with lower (P < 0·05) phosphorylated insulin receptor substrate 1, protein kinase B or Akt, glycogen synthase kinase 3β and expressions of sterol regulatory element binding protein 1 and fatty acid synthase (FASN); decreased expressions for Cd36, sterol regulatory element binding protein 1c (Srebf1) and Fasn; increased (P < 0·05) expression of PPARα; and expressions for Ppara and hormone-sensitive lipase in the liver of IUGR-C rats than the IUGR rats. Maternal malnutrition caused IR and lipid accumulation in the liver. Curcumin supplementation prevented IR by regulating insulin signalling pathways and attenuated hepatic lipid accumulation.
We have collected 2330 Cepheids to establish an intuitive 3D map of the Milky Way’s disk. As regards the warp amplitude, the Cepheid disk agrees well with the gas disk for radii up to 15 kpc. However, the mean line of nodes (LON) of the Cepheid disk deviates from the Galactic Center–Sun direction by 17.5±1.0°. This is a new and different result compared with previous results. The LON is not stable at any given radius, but it twists. The twisted pattern suggests that the formation of the Milky Way’s warp is dominated by the massive inner disk. The kinematic warp defined by the Cepheids is also in concordance with the spatial warp. In the 2020 era, the anticipated increasing number of new Cepheids will provide a key opportunity to view our Milky Way’s disk as a whole, and we expect that our knowledge of the disk’s main structural features will be much improved.
The associations between growth during early life and subsequent cognitive development and physical outcomes are not widely known in low-resource settings. We examined postnatal weight and height gain through early life and related these measurements to the nutritional status and intellectual development of the same children when they were between 7 and 9 years old. Mothers had enrolled in an randomised controlled trial to evaluate the effect of prenatal micronutrient supplementation on birth weight. Their children were born in 2004, their height and weight were measured at 6, 12, 18 and 24 months of age and were followed up between October 2012 and September 2013 (at ages 7–9 years, n 650). Height-for-age, weight-for-age and BMI-for-age were used to describe the nutritional status, and the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children fourth edition was used to measure the intellectual function. Multilevel linear and logistic modelling was used to estimate the association between early growth and subsequent growth and intellectual function. After adjustment, weight gain from 6 to 12 months of age was associated with Full-scale Intelligence Quotient, Verbal Comprehension Index, Working Memory Index and Perceptual Reasoning Index. Weight gain during early life was associated with subsequent nutritional status. For every 1 kg increase in weight during the 0- to 6-month period, the OR for underweight, thinness and stunting at 7–9 years of age were 0·19 (95 % CI 0·09, 0·37), 0·34 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·59) and 0·40 (95 % CI 0·19, 0·83), respectively. Weight gain during the periods of 6–12 months of age and 18–24 months of age was also associated with a lower risk of being underweight. Weight gain during early life was associated with better growth outcomes and improved intellectual development in young school-aged children.
In inertial confinement fusion experiments that involve short-laser pulses such as fast ignition (FI), diagnosis of neutrons is usually very challenging because high-intensity γ rays generated by short-laser pulses would mask the much weaker neutron signal. In this paper, fast-response scintillators with low afterglow and gated microchannel plate photomultiplier tubes are combined to build neutron time-of-flight (nTOF) spectrometers for such experiments. Direct-drive implosion experiments of deuterium-gas-filled capsules were performed at the Shenguang-II Upgrade (SG-II-UP) laser facility to study the compressed fuel areal density (〈ρR〉) and evaluate the performance of such nTOF diagnostics. Two newly developed quenched liquid scintillator detectors and a gated ultrafast plastic scintillator detector were used to measure the secondary DT neutrons and primary DD neutrons, respectively. The secondary neutron signals were clearly discriminated from the γ rays from (n, γ) reactions, and the compressed fuel areal density obtained with the yield-ratio method agrees well with the simulations. Additionally, a small scintillator decay tail and a clear DD neutron signal were observed in an integrated FI experiment as a result of the low afterglow of the oxygen-quenched liquid scintillator.
The piezophotonic effect is the coupling between piezoelectric properties and photoexcitation, where strain-induced piezopotential modulates and controls the relevant optical process. Specifically, metal ions as activators are capable of responding to photoexcitation and subsequent emission of light, also called mechanoluminescence, in general, and piezoluminescence specifically for piezoelectrics. These phenomena are helpful for understanding the materials fundamentals and conceiving widespread device applications. In this article, we briefly introduce the physical mechanisms of piezophotonics, including piezoluminescence. Selected host materials and metal-ion activators are described for demonstrating the piezophotonic effect. We provide a unified profile and recent prototypical demonstrations of light emission triggered by mechanical stimuli. The devices based on these materials offer the advantages of remote detection, nondestructive analysis, and repeatability, hence they are promising candidates for applications in stress sensing, structural health diagnosis, three-dimensional handwriting, magnetic-optical sensing, energy harvesting, biomedicine, novel light sources, and displays.
Monthly disaggregated US data from 1978 to 2016 reveal that exposure to news on inflation and monetary policy helps to explain inflation expectations. This remains true when controlling for household personal characteristics, perceptions of government policy effectiveness, expectations of future interest and unemployment rates, and sentiment. We find an asymmetric impact of news on inflation and monetary policy after 1983, with news on rising inflation and easier monetary policy having a stronger effect in comparison to news on lowering inflation and tightening monetary policy. Our results indicate the impact on inflation expectations of monetary policy news manifested through consumer sentiment during the lower bound period.
Magnesium is a biodegradable material that has potential application in cardiovascular stent development: its excellent mechanical properties and blood compatibility make it highly useful in interventional therapy. Nevertheless, the following shortcomings restrict its further application: antihyperplasia function and promoting surface endothelialization. In this study, we immobilized a specific link peptide of endothelial cells, Arg-Glu-Asp-Val (REDV), onto polydopamine (PDA)-deposited Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy surface via covalent reaction to improve the growth of the endothelial cells. The PDA/REDV coating with optimized parameters maintained the good blood compatibility of the Mg–Zn–Y–Nd alloy at the biomimetic speed of the blood flow and significantly inhibited the growth of the vascular smooth muscle cells and macrophage attachment/activation, which indicated its better functions in antihyperplasia and anti-inflammation. In particular, the PDA/REDV coating not only showed consistent results in promoting the attachment of endothelial cells as reported elsewhere, but also displayed the ability of enhancing the viability of endothelial cells (or inhibiting apoptosis), suggesting its pro-endothelialized function through different pathways. In summary, this PDA/REDV coating addressed the above-mentioned shortcomings of the magnesium alloy, which may promise its wider application.
In this work, a N-doped CsTi2NbO7@g-C3N4 (NTCN) heterojunction nanocomposite was synthesized by a simple one-step calcination method. The as-prepared samples were characterized by means of X-ray diffraction patterns, scanning electron microscopy, high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy, and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results showed that g-C3N4 was formed both on the surface and within the interlayers of CsTi2NbO7, in which CsTi2NbO7 was in situ doped by nitrogen atoms to form N–CsTi2NbO7. The NTCN composite displayed higher electrocatalytic activity toward the detection of nitrite than pure CsTi2NbO7 and g-C3N4. The main reasons could be attributed to the synergistic effects of morphology engineering, N-doping, and layered heterojunction. The NTCN-based electrochemical sensor expressed a good linear relationship range from 0.0999 to 3.15 mmol/L with a detection limit of 2.63 × 10−5 mol/L. The good recovery, stability, and reproducibility of this biosensor showed the potential application in environmental monitoring.
Study of the residues of organochlorine pesticides (OCPs) can assist with the assessment of the contamination level, distribution, sources, transportation and trends in these selected OCPs. We investigated the concentration levels of hexachlorocyclohexanes (HCHs), dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane (DDT), chlordane, which is currently used, and the never-used aldrin and dieldrin in the Ningbo region – a heavily industrialised and urbanised area in East China. OCPs were found in all soil samples and were predominantly composed of HCHs, DDT and its metabolites. The concentration of DDTs in the soil ranged from 2.2 to 566.6ngg–1, with a mean value of 55.6±94.8ngg–1, while the concentration of HCHs ranged from 2.7 to 28.2ngg–1, with an average of 4.6±2.9ngg–1. Aldrin, dieldrin, endrin and heptachlor were detected at much lower concentrations. The wide distribution of these never-used OCPs indicates that they have been input via long-range atmospheric processes. The results from analysis suggest that HCHs and DDTs were mainly derived from use in historical times.
(1 − x)Ba(Mg1/3Ta2/3)O3–xBa(Co1/3Nb2/3)O3 (BMT–BCN, x = 0.0, 0.20, 0.25, 0.30, 0.40) ceramics were prepared using the traditional solid-state reaction method. X-ray diffraction patterns have shown that the intensities of (001) and (100) super-lattices decrease with the increase in the BCN content. Seven main Raman vibrational modes are observed, assigned, and illustrated, in particular. Raman shifts of Eg(O) modes and the FWHM values of F2g(O)/A1g(O) modes have close relationship with the dielectric properties. The calculated values by the four-parameter semiquantum model based on IR reflectivity match well with the measured data (@3.8 GHz), which means that most of dielectric contribution to the system may be ascribed to the absorption of structural phononic oscillations at the infrared region, and the contribution from the scattering of the defective phonons is small. The contributions of each vibrational mode on the dielectric responses were investigated in detail, indicating that the low-frequency modes (A2u(1) and Eu(1)) have a decisive role to the dielectric properties.