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In 2017, the Onassis Cultural Center in New York hosted an exhibition called “A World of Emotions” (Levere, 2017). This exhibition was publicized as “Bringing to vivid life the emotions of the people of ancient Greece, and prompting questions about how we express, control, and manipulate feelings in our own society” (Onassis USA, 2017). The historical epoch covered was from 700 BC to AD 200, very roughly from a time near the end of the classical period to the middle of the Hellenistic period. One commentary on this exhibition suggested: “These objects provide a timely opportunity to think about the role of feelings in our personal, social and political lives and help advance the relatively new field of the history of emotions” (Levere, 2017).
Over the past few decades, researchers have made notable strides in understanding the processes underlying workplace affect. In particular, rigorous measures and new theoretical models for the study of workplace affect have been developed, validated, and updated with data gathered from employee samples across different industries, countries, and cultures (e.g. Bledow, Schmitt, Frese, & Kühnel, 2011; McCullough, Emmons, & Tsang, 2002; Watson, 2000; Weiss & Cropanzano, 1996; Yang, Simon, Wang, & Zheng, 2016). As shown in the array of chapters in this volume, exciting progress has been made on many fronts. Yet there are many separate streams of research that have been developed in a relatively independent fashion. This chapter will propose some directions for future research that could integrate different areas of research on emotional experiences at work. We propose and discuss the following ideas: integration of research on general and discrete emotions; research taking a broader view of emotional management; new research methods and new perspectives; and the implications of social changes for research on workplace affect and for the application of such research.
Are you struggling to improve a hostile or uncomfortable environment at work, or interested in how such tension can arise? Experts in organizational psychology, management science, social psychology, and communication science show you how to implement interventions and programs to manage workplace emotion. The connection between workplace affect and relevant challenges in our society, such as diversity and technological changes, is undeniable; thus learning to harness that knowledge can revolutionize your performance in tackling workday issues. Applying major theoretical perspectives and research methodologies, this book outlines the concepts of display rules, emotional labor, work motivation, well-being, and discrete emotions. Understanding these ideas will show you how affect can promote team effectiveness, leadership, and conflict resolution. If you require a foundation for understanding workplace affect or a springboard into deeper, more interdisciplinary research, this book presents an integrative approach that is indispensable.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To explore the patterns, sequence, quantity, frequency and duration of poly substance use among adults for back translation of information to rodent models. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: From May –December 2019, we conducted 13 focus group discussions with adults 19 to 63 years of age who reported concurrent use of cocaine with alcohol and/or marijuana in the past 30 days. All participants were recruited from the community through community outreach activities. Written informed consent was obtained and all focus group discussions were audio recorded, transcribed and analyzed using the qualitative data analysis software Atlas Ti™. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: A total of 34 cocaine users, (68% male, and 59% minority) participated. The majority reported cocaine as the drug of preference, while marijuana and alcohol were used to extend or control the ‘highs’, or ‘to take the edge off’ after cocaine use. All participants reported when they used alcohol with cocaine, they could keep drinking a large amount of alcohol without feeling its effect. Participants also reported using marijuana throughout the day while driving, at work, or in class. Frequent patterns noted for the study included using two drugs at the same time or right before or after each other with alcohol used throughout the day. Participants also gave feedback on our Poly Substance Use (PSU) assessment that captures exact patterns so that the most common can be translated for the rodent models. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Our focus group discussions provided detailed information on patterns, sequence, quantity, and types of poly substance use that could be useful for developing a poly substance use assessment in the collection of data for rodent models to understand effects of poly substance use.
The Chinese National Twin Registry (CNTR), initiated in 2001, has now become the largest twin registry in Asia. From 2015 to 2018, the CNTR continued to receive Chinese government funding and had recruited 61,566 twin-pairs by 2019 to study twins discordant for specific exposures such as environmental factors, and twins discordant for disease outcomes or measures of morbidity. Omic data, including genetics, genomics, metabolomics, and proteomics, and gut microbiome will be tested. The integration of omics and digital technologies in public health will advance our understanding of precision public health. This review introduces the updates of the CNTR, including study design, sample size, biobank, zygosity assessment, advances in research and future systems epidemiologic research.
Item 9 of the Patient Health Questionnaire-9 (PHQ-9) queries about thoughts of death and self-harm, but not suicidality. Although it is sometimes used to assess suicide risk, most positive responses are not associated with suicidality. The PHQ-8, which omits Item 9, is thus increasingly used in research. We assessed equivalency of total score correlations and the diagnostic accuracy to detect major depression of the PHQ-8 and PHQ-9.
We conducted an individual patient data meta-analysis. We fit bivariate random-effects models to assess diagnostic accuracy.
16 742 participants (2097 major depression cases) from 54 studies were included. The correlation between PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 scores was 0.996 (95% confidence interval 0.996 to 0.996). The standard cutoff score of 10 for the PHQ-9 maximized sensitivity + specificity for the PHQ-8 among studies that used a semi-structured diagnostic interview reference standard (N = 27). At cutoff 10, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive by 0.02 (−0.06 to 0.00) and more specific by 0.01 (0.00 to 0.01) among those studies (N = 27), with similar results for studies that used other types of interviews (N = 27). For all 54 primary studies combined, across all cutoffs, the PHQ-8 was less sensitive than the PHQ-9 by 0.00 to 0.05 (0.03 at cutoff 10), and specificity was within 0.01 for all cutoffs (0.00 to 0.01).
PHQ-8 and PHQ-9 total scores were similar. Sensitivity may be minimally reduced with the PHQ-8, but specificity is similar.