X-rays and deficiencies in DNA repair had a synergistic effect on genetic damage associated with P-element mobility in Drosophila melanogaster. These interactions, using sterility and fecundity as endpoints, were tested in dysgenic males deficient in either excision or post-replication DNA repair. Three sublines of the Harwich P strain were used for the construction of hybrid males. These sublines differ in P-induction ability based on gonadal dysgenesis sterility (GD) and snw mutability tests, in P-element insertion site pattern, and in the types of defective P-elements, such as KP elements, they possess. A lower degree of gonadal dysgenesis was correlated with the presence of KP elements. GD sterility and snw mutability were not always correlated. Dysgenic hybrids originating from the standard reference subline, Harwichwhite, were much more sensitive to the post-replication repair than the excision repair defect. In contrast, sterility of hybrids derived from the weak subline was least affected by, and that of hybrids of the strongest subline was most affected by either DNA repair deficiency. The exacerbation by X-rays of the effects of DNA repair deficiencies on genetic damage indicates that both repair mechanisms are required for processing DNA lesions induced by the combined effect of P activity and ionizing radiation.