To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has dramatically changed the epidemiology of several diseases. Much evidence on this has been published in the pandemic phase. In addition, many studies have shown that phenomena such as stress, substance abuse, and burnout increased in the general population during the lockdown. Unfortunately, few studies analyze the post-pandemic phase.
The study aimed to evaluate the trend of broad social problems, such as a diagnosis by the emergency department (ED), in the post-pandemic phase in the Lombardy (Italy) region.
The study is a retrospective observational cohort study. All admissions to emergency rooms in the Lombardy region registered in the Emergency Urgency OnLine (EUOL) portal made from January through June 2019 were analyzed, having as main causes: psychiatric disorders, self-harm, substance abuse, social disadvantage, and violence. All accesses in emergency rooms in the Lombardy region registered in the EUOL portal made from January 1, 2019 through June 30, 2019 were analyzed and compared with the same period in 2022.
The study recorded an increase in the likelihood of events of self-harm (OR = 2.1; 95% CI, 1.8-2.6; P <.0001), substance abuse (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.3; P <.0001), violence by others (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4; P <.0001), and social disadvantage (OR = 1.2; 95% CI, 1.1-1.4; P = .0045). The events are more concentrated in suburban areas (OR = 1.3; 95% CI, 1.2-1.4; P <.001).
The increase in diagnoses of these social problems in the ED is only the culmination of a phenomenon that hides an underlying rise in social illness. In the post-COVID-19 phase, there is a need to invest in community care and social illness prevention policies.
During the COVID-19 pandemic, a total lockdown was enforced all over Italy starting on March 9, 2020. This resulted in the shrinking of economic activities. In addition, all formal occupational security-training courses were halted, among them the 81/08 law lectures and Basic Life Support-Defibrillation (BLS-D) laypersons training courses. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of the pandemic on BLS-D laypersons training courses in the Lombardy region.
BLS-D training courses records for the Lombardy region were analyzed. The analysis was conducted from 2016 to 2020 as part of the Hippo project.
In the period between 2017 and 2019, BLS-D trained laypersons kept increasing, moving from 53500 trained individuals up to 74700. In 2020, a stark reduction was observed with only 22160 individuals trained. Formal courses were not halted completely during 2020. Still, in the months available for training, the number of individuals enrolled showed a sharp 50% reduction.
Laypersons training courses for emergency management are a fundamental component of primary prevention practice. The 81/08 and 158/12 Italian laws have decreed this practice mandatory in the workplace. Following the enforcement of the lockdown and the subsequent interruption of emergency management courses, efforts will be necessary to re-establish and guarantee the high quality training of the pre-pandemic period.
Using remotely sensed land-cover data in 1994 and 2014, and cross-sectional survey data in 2014, this study examines the association between land use and cover change and agricultural productivity in northern Ghana. We document a significant expansion of crop land and settlements (productive use) at the expense of natural vegetation cover. Land areas converted from natural cover to productive use have higher maize yield (0.17 tons per hectare) and harvest value (1,021 Ghanaian Cedi) compared with those converted from bare soil to productive cover. Moreover, areas that were covered by shrubs or savannah in 1994 were more productive in 2014 relative to bare soils in 1994. Although our data do not allow us to establish causality, the evidence suggests the importance of past land-cover conditions in affecting current agricultural performance, especially in resource-stricken settings where conservation and restoration practices are not as common.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.