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Burnout is well characterised in physicians and residents but not in paediatric cardiology fellows, and few studies follow burnout longitudinally. Training-specific fears have been described in paediatric cardiology fellows but also have not been studied at multiple time points. This study aimed to measure burnout, training-specific fears, and professional fulfilment in paediatric cardiology fellows with the attention to time of year and year-of-training.
This survey-based study included the Professional Fulfillment Index and the Impact of Events Scale as well as an investigator-designed Fellow Fears Questionnaire. Surveys were distributed at three-time points during the academic year to paediatric cardiology fellows at a large Midwestern training programme. Fellow self-reported gender and year-of-training were collected. Descriptive analyses were performed.
10/17 (59%) of fellows completed all surveys; 60% were female, 40% in the first-year class, 40% in the second-year class, and 20% in the third-year class. At least half of the fellows reported burnout at each survey time point, with lower mean professional fulfilment scores. The second-year class, who rotate primarily in the cardiac ICU, had higher proportions of burnout than the other two classes. At least half of fellows reported that they “often” or “always” worried about not having enough clinical knowledge or skills and about work–life balance.
Paediatric cardiology fellows exhibit high proportions of burnout and training-specific fears. Interventions to mitigate burnout should be targeted specifically to training needs, including during high-acuity rotations.
Background: The term “borderline left ventricle” describes a small left heart that may be inadequate to provide systemic cardiac output and implies the potential need for a single-ventricle palliation. The aim of this study was to identify foetal echocardiographic features that help discriminate which infants will undergo single-ventricle palliation versus biventricular repair to aid in prenatal counselling. Methods: The foetal database at our institution was searched to identify all foetuses with borderline left ventricle, as determined subjectively by a foetal cardiologist, from 2000 to 2011. The foetal images were retrospectively analysed for morphologic and physiologic features to determine which best predicted the postnatal surgical choice. Results: Of 39 foetuses identified with borderline left ventricle, 15 were planned for a univentricular approach, and 24 were planned for a biventricular approach. There were significant differences between the two outcome groups in the Z-scores of the mitral valve annulus, left ventricular end-diastolic dimension, aortic valve annulus, and ascending aorta diameter (p<0.05). With respect to discriminating univentricular outcomes, cut-offs of mitral valve Z-score ⩽−1.9 and tricuspid:mitral valve ratio ⩾1.5 were extremely sensitive (100%), whereas a right:left ventricular end-diastolic dimension ratio ⩾2.1 provided the highest specificity (95.8%). Conclusion: In foetuses with borderline left ventricle, a mitral valve Z-score ⩾−1.9 or a tricuspid:mitral valve ratio ⩽1.5 suggests a high probability of biventricular repair, whereas a right:left ventricular end-diastolic dimension ratio ⩾2.1 confers a likelihood of single-ventricle palliation.
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