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Psychiatric disorders are very common in patients affected by Parkinson’s disease (PD). However, comorbidity with Bipolar Spectrum disorders is understudied. The aim of this study is to explore the clinical correlates of PD associated with Bipolar Spectrum disorders.
One hundred PD patients were screened for psychiatric comorbidities, cognitive profile, motor, and non-motor symptoms. The sample was divided into three groups: PD-patients with Bipolar Spectrum disorders (bipolar disorder type I, type II, and spontaneous or induced hypomania; N = 32), PD-patients with others psychiatric comorbidities (N = 39), PD-patients without psychiatric comorbidities (N = 29). Clinical features were compared among the groups using analysis of variance and chi-square test. A logistic regression was performed to evaluate the association between Bipolar Spectrum disorders and early onset of PD (≤50 years) controlling for lifetime antipsychotic use.
In comparison with PD patients with and without other psychiatric comorbidity, subjects affected by Bipolar Spectrum disorders were younger, showed more frequently an early onset PD, reported more involuntary movements and a higher rate of impulse control disorders and compulsive behaviors. No differences were observed in indexes of exposure to dopamine agonist treatments. The early onset of PD was predicted by Bipolar Spectrum comorbidity, independently from lifetime antipsychotic use.
Bipolar Spectrum disorders are common in early onset PD. The presence of bipolar comorbidity could identify a particular subtype of PD, showing higher rates of neurological and psychiatric complications and deserving further investigation.
While both depression and aging have been associated with oxidative stress and impaired immune response, little is known about redox patterns in elderly depressed subjects. This study investigates the relationship between redox/inflammatory patterns and depression in a sample of elderly adults.
The plasma levels of the advanced products of protein oxidation (AOPP), catalase (CAT), ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP), glutathione transferase (GST), interleukin 6 (IL-6), superoxide dismutase (SOD), total thiols (TT), and uric acid (UA) were evaluated in 30 patients with mood disorders with a current depressive episode (depressed patients, DP) as well as in 30 healthy controls (HC) aged 65 years and over. Subjects were assessed with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAM-D), the Hamilton Rating Scale for Anxiety (HAM-A), the Geriatric Depression Rating Scale (GDS), the Scale for Suicide Ideation (SSI), the Reason for Living Inventory (RFL), the Activities of Daily Living (ADL), and the Instrumental Activity of Daily Living (IADL).
DP showed higher levels than HC of AOPP and IL-6, while displaying lower levels of FRAP, TT, and CAT. In the DP group, specific correlations were found among biochemical parameters. SOD, FRAP, UA, and TT levels were also significantly related to psychometric scale scores.
Specific alterations of redox systems are detectable among elderly DP.
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