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We give a model-theoretic account for several results regarding sequences of random variables appearing in Berkes and Rosenthal . In order to do this,
•We study and compare three notions of convergence of types in a stable theory: logic convergence, i.e., formula by formula, metric convergence (both already well studied) and convergence of canonical bases. In particular, we characterise א0-categorical stable theories in which the last two agree.
•We characterise sequences that admit almost indiscernible sub-sequences.
•We apply these tools to the theory of atomless random variables (ARV). We characterise types and notions of convergence of types as conditional distributions and weak/strong convergence thereof, and obtain, among other things, the Main Theorem of Berkes and Rosenthal.
A metric structure is a many-sorted structure in which each sort is a complete metric space of finite diameter. Additionally, the structure consists of some distinguished elements as well as some functions (of several variables) (a) between sorts and (b) from sorts to bounded subsets of ℝ, and these functions are all required to be uniformly continuous. Examples arise throughout mathematics, especially in analysis and geometry. They include metric spaces themselves, measure algebras, asymptotic cones of finitely generated groups, and structures based on Banach spaces (where one takes the sorts to be balls), including Banach lattices, C*-algebras, etc.
The usual first-order logic does not work very well for such structures, and several good alternatives have been developed. One alternative is the logic of positive bounded formulas with an approximate semantics (see [23, 25, 24]). This was developed for structures from functional analysis that are based on Banach spaces; it is easily adapted to the more general metric structure setting that is considered here. Another successful alternative is the setting of compact abstract theories (cats; see [1, 3, 4]). A recent development is the realization that for metric structures the frameworks of positive bounded formulas and of cats are equivalent. (The full cat framework is more general.) Further, out of this discovery has come a new continuous version of first-order logic that is suitable for metric structures; it is equivalent to both the positive bounded and cat approaches, but has many advantages over them.
It is shown that Schatten
-classes of operators between Hilbert spaces of different (infinite) dimensions have ultrapowers which are (completely) isometric to non-commutative
-spaces. On the other hand, these Schatten classes are not themselves isomorphic to non-commutative
spaces. As a consequence, the class of non-commutative
-spaces is not axiomatizable in the first-order language developed by Henson and Iovino for normed space structures, neither in the signature of Banach spaces, nor in that of operator spaces. Other examples of the same phenomenon are presented that belong to the class of corners of non-commutative
this last class, which is the same as the class of preduals of ternary rings of operators, is itself axiomatizable in the signature of operator spaces.
We introduce and discuss a concept of approximation of a topological algebraic system A by finite algebraic systems from a given class . If A is discrete, this concept agrees with the familiar notion of a local embedding of A in a class of algebraic systems. One characterization of this concept states that A is locally embedded in iff it is a subsystem of an ultraproduct of systems from . In this paper we obtain a similar characterization of approximability of a locally compact system A by systems from using the language of nonstandard analysis.
In the signature of A we introduce positive bounded formulas and their approximations; these are similar to those introduced by Henson  for Banach space structures (see also [15, 16]). We prove that a positive bounded formula φ holds in A if and only if all precise enough approximations of φ hold in all precise enough approximations of A.
We also prove that a locally compact field cannot be approximated arbitrarily closely by finite (associative) rings (even if the rings are allowed to be non-commutative). Finite approximations of the field ℝ can be considered as possible computer systems for real arithmetic. Thus, our results show that there do not exist arbitrarily accurate computer arithmetics for the reals that are associative rings.
We will discuss in this paper some aspects of a general program whose goal is the development of the theory of definable actions of Polish groups, the structure and classification of their orbit spaces, and the closely related study of definable equivalence relations. This work is motivated by basic foundational questions, like understanding the nature of complete classification of mathematical objects up to some notion of equivalence by invariants, and creating a mathematical framework for measuring the complexity of such classification problems. This theory, which has been growing rapidly over the last few years, is developed within the context of descriptive set theory, which provides the basic underlying concepts and methods. On the other hand, in view of the broad scope of this theory, there are natural interactions of it with other areas of mathematics, such as the theory of topological groups, topological dynamics, ergodic theory and its relationships with the theory of operator algebras, model theory, and recursion theory.
Classically, in various branches of dynamics one studies actions of the groups of integers ℤ, reals ℝ, Lie groups, or even more generally (second countable) locally compact groups. One of the goals of the theory is to expand this scope by considering the more comprehensive class of Polish groups (separable completely metrizable topological groups), which seems to be the widest class of well-behaved (for our purposes) groups and which includes practically every type of topological group we are interested in.
This volume comprises articles from four outstanding researchers who work at the cusp of analysis and logic. The emphasis is on active research topics; many results are presented that have not been published before and open problems are formulated. Considerable effort has been made by the authors to integrate their articles and make them accessible to mathematicians new to the area.