In 2015, the Belgian National Reference Centre for Bordetella analyzed 4110 respiratory samples by qPCR and 4877 serum samples by serology. Whereas about 50% of respiratory samples were from infants and children below the age of five, serum samples were distributed among all age categories. A total of 394 (9·6%) cases was diagnosed as positive for Bordetella pertussis by qPCR and 844 (17·3%) cases were diagnosed as acute infection by serology (anti-pertussis toxin (PT) IgG > 125 IU/ml). Another 1042 (21·4%) sera had anti-PT IgG between 55 and 125 IU/ml reflecting a vaccination or pertussis infection during the last 1–2 years. Seventy per cent of the pertussis cases diagnosed by qPRC were in infants and children younger than 14 years old, whereas the highest number of sera with anti-PT levels >125 IU/ml was in the age group of 10–14 years old. Based on the limited data of the last vaccination (reported for only 15% of the samples), recent booster vaccination in the teenager group may have contributed only minimally to these elevated anti-PT levels. The highest number of sera with anti-PT titers between 55 and 125 IU/ml was found in the age category 50–59 years old. It is clear that pertussis continues to be a problem in Belgium and that other vaccination strategies (maternal vaccination, cocoon vaccination) and ultimately better vaccines will be needed to control this highly infectious respiratory disease.