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Multi- and hyperspectral sensors in the visible to short-wave infrared (0.4–2.5 μm) are sensitive to spectral features caused by electronic charge transfer and transition metal crystal field band as well as molecular overtone absorptions. This chapter reviews several processing techniques used to map materials on planetary surfaces based on their reflectance spectra in this spectral region. Techniques that are reviewed include spectral matching in the form of spectral angle and spectral information divergence, linear and nonlinear spectral unmixing, partial unmixing/matched filters, and machine learning approaches in the form of self-organizing maps, neural network classification, and support vector machines.
Multispectral imaging – the acquisition of spatially contiguous imaging data in a modest number (~3–16) of spectral bandpasses – has proven to be a powerful technique for augmenting panchromatic imaging observations on Mars focused on geologic and/or atmospheric context. Specifically, multispectral imaging using modern digital CCD photodetectors and narrowband filters in the 400–1100 nm wavelength region on the Mars Pathfinder, Mars Exploration Rover, Phoenix, and Mars Science Laboratory missions has provided new information on the composition and mineralogy of fine-grained regolith components (dust, soils, sand, spherules, coatings), rocky surface regions (cobbles, pebbles, boulders, outcrops, and fracture-filling veins), meteorites, and airborne dust and other aerosols. Here we review recent scientific results from Mars surface-based multispectral imaging investigations, including the ways that these observations have been used in concert with other kinds of measurements to enhance the overall scientific return from Mars surface missions.
The SCN5A gene is implicated in many arrhythmogenic and cardiomyopathic processes. We identified a novel SCN5A variant in a family with significant segregation in individuals affected with progressive sinus and atrioventricular nodal disease, atrial arrhythmia, dilated cardiomyopathy, and early sudden cardiac arrest.
A patient pedigree was created following the clinical evaluation of three affected individuals, two monozygotic twins and a paternal half-brother, which lead to the evaluation of a paternal half-sister (four siblings with the same father and three mothers) all of whom experienced varying degrees of atrial arrhythmias, conduction disease, and dilated cardiomyopathy in addition to a paternal history of unexplained death in his 50s with similar autopsy findings. The index male underwent sequencing of 58 genes associated with cardiomyopathies. Sanger sequencing was used to provide data for bases with insufficient coverage and for bases in some known regions of genomic segmental duplications. All clinically significant and novel variants were confirmed by independent Sanger sequencing.
All relatives tested were shown to have the same SCN5A variant of unknown significance (p. Asp197His) and the monozygotic twins shared a co-occurring NEXN (p. Glu575*). Segregation analysis demonstrates likely pathogenic trait for the SCN5A variant with an additional possible role for the NEXN variant in combination.
There is compelling clinical evidence suggesting that the SCN5A variant p. Asp197His may be re-classified as likely pathogenic based on the segregation analysis of our family of interest. Molecular mechanism studies are pending.
Introduction: Needle-related procedures are considered the most important source of pain and distress in children in hospital settings. Time constraints, heavy workload, busy and noisy environment represent barriers to the use of available interventions for pain management during needle-related procedures. Therefore, the use of a rapid, easy-to-use intervention could improve procedural pain management practices. The objective was to determine if a device combining cold and vibration (Buzzy) is non-inferior (no worse) to a topical anesthetic (Maxilene) for pain management in children undergoing needle-related procedures in the Emergency Department (ED). Methods: This study was a randomized, controlled, non-inferiority trial. We enrolled children aged between 4-17 years presenting to the ED and requiring a needle-related procedure. Participants were randomly assigned to the Buzzy or Maxilene group. The primary outcome was the mean difference in pain intensity during the procedure, as measured with the CAS (0-10). Secondary outcomes were procedural distress, success of the procedure at first-attempt and satisfaction of parents. Results: A total of 352 participants were enrolled and 346 were randomized (Buzzy = 172; Maxilene = 174). Mean difference in procedural pain scores between groups was 0.64 (95%CI -0.1 to 1.3), showing that the Buzzy device was not non-inferior to Maxilene according to a non-inferiority margin of 0.70. No significant differences were observed for procedural distress (p = .370) and success of the procedure at first attempt (p = .602). Parents of both groups were very satisfied with both interventions (Buzzy = 7.8 ±2.66; Maxilene = 8.1 ±2.4), but there was no significant difference between groups (p = .236). Conclusion: Non-inferiority of the Buzzy device over a topical anesthetic was not demonstrated for pain management of children during a needle-related procedure in the ED. However, considering that topical anesthetics are underused in the ED setting and require time, the Buzzy device seems to be a promising alternative as it is a rapid, low-cost, easy-to-use and reusable intervention.
The PALFA survey, the most sensitive blind search for radio pulsars, has now discovered 180 pulsars in the Galactic Plane, the vast of which have periods shorter than 2 seconds. One reason that pulsar surveys may miss long-period radio pulsars is the strong effect of red noise at low modulation frequencies. It is possible to address this reduction in sensitivity by using a Fast-Folding Algorithm (FFA). We have adapted this algorithm for radio pulsar searching and applied it to PALFA observations. A sensitivity analysis of the algorithm has been conducted using synthetic pulsar signals injected in real observational data and this study shows that the FFA improves the PALFA survey sensitivity, as reported in Lazarus et al.(2015), by at least a factor of two at periods of ~6 sec, implying that the PALFA survey should discover more long-period radio pulsars in the future.
Introduction: Appropriate pain management relies on the use of valid, reliable and age-appropriate tools that are validated in the setting in which they are intended to be used. The aim of the study was to assess the psychometric properties of pain scales commonly used in children presenting to the pediatric emergency department (PED) with an acute musculoskeletal injury. Methods: Convergent validity was assessed by determining the Spearman’s correlations and the agreement using the Bland-Altman method between the Visual Analogue Scale (VAS), Faces Pain Scale-Revised (FPS-R) and Color Analogue Scale (CAS). Responsiveness to change was determined by performing the Wilcoxon signed-rank test between the pre-post analgesia mean scores. Reliability of the scales was estimated using relative (Spearman’s correlation, Intraclass Correlation Coefficient) and absolute indices (Coefficient of Reliability). Results: A total of 495 participants was included in the analyses. Mean age was 11.9 ±2.7 years and participants were mainly boys (55.3%). Correlation between each pair of scales was 0.79 (VAS/FPS-R), 0.92 (VAS/CAS) and 0.81 (CAS/FPS-R). Limits of agreement (80%CI) were -2.71 to 1.27 (VAS/FPS-R), -1.13 to 1.15 (VAS/CAS) and -1.45 to 2.61 (CAS/FPS-R). Responsiveness to change was demonstrated by significant differences in mean pain scores, among the three scales, between pre- and post-medication administration (p<0.0001). ICC and CR estimates suggested acceptable reliability for the three scales at 0.79 and ±1.49 for VAS, 0.82 and ±1.35 for CAS, and 0.76 and ±1.84 for FPS-R. Conclusion: The scales demonstrated good psychometric properties with a large sample of children with acute pain in the PED. The VAS and CAS showed a stronger convergent validity, while FPS-R was not in agreement with the other scales. Clinically, VAS and CAS scales can be used interchangeably to assess pain intensity of children with acute pain.
Liquid cell transmission electron microscopy (LCTEM) provides a unique insight into the dynamics of nanomaterials in solution. Controlling the addition of multiple solutions to the liquid cell remains a key hurdle in our ability to increase throughput and to study processes dependent on solution mixing including chemical reactions. Here, we report that a piezo dispensing technique allows for mixing of multiple solutions directly within the viewing area. This technique permits deposition of 50 pL droplets of various aqueous solutions onto the liquid cell window, before assembly of the cell in a fully controlled manner. This proof-of-concept study highlights the great potential of picoliter dispensing in combination with LCTEM for observing nanoparticle mixing in the solution phase and the creation of chemical gradients.
Introduction: Rib fractures represent a frequent condition associated with Minor Thoracic Injury (MTI). Since the last decade, ultrasound have become an important part of emergency physician’s (EP) daily practice, and its applications have become numerous. The main objective of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of Emergency Department Targeted Ultrasound (EDTU) for rib fracture diagnosis in patients with MTI. Secondary objectives were to 1) evaluate patients’ pain during the EDTU procedure, 2) assess clinicians’ degree of certitude over rib fracture diagnosis made by EDTU, 3) identify the limitations of the use of EDTU technique, and 4) compare the diagnosis obtained with EDTU to radiography results. Methods: Adult patients who presented with clinical suspicion of rib fractures after MTI were included. All patients underwent EDTU performed by emergency physicians (EP) prior to a rib view X-ray. Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) ranging from 0 to 100 was used to ascertain feasibility, patients’ pain and clinicians’ degree of certitude. Feasibility was defined as a score of more than 50 on the VAS. We also documented the radiologists’ interpretation of rib view X-ray. Radiologists were blinded to the EDTU results. Results: Ninety-six patients were included. A majority (65%) of EP concluded that the EDTU technique to diagnose rib fracture was feasible (VAS score > 50). Median score for feasibility was 63. Median score was 31 (Interquartile range (IQR) 5-57) for patients’ pain related to the EDTU examination and 72 (IQR 32-92) for the degree of certitude over the diagnosis made by EDTU. The main limiting factor of the EDTU technique was pain during patient examination (15%). Conclusion: EDTU examination appears to be a feasible technique for rib fractures diagnosis in the ED.
For a long time, applications have been using data about the positions of the moving objects they are interested in. For example, city planning applications, in particular in the transportation and traffic management domains, have been observing and monitoring traffic flows to capture their characteristics, namely their importance and localization, with the aim to build better models for traffic regulation and to identify solutions for future development of the existing road network. Sociologists have also been examining the movement of cars equipped with GPS, focusing on individual cars rather than traffic flows, to understand the habits of their drivers. In the logistics domain, applications have been monitoring the localization of the parcels during their transportation from their source locations to their destinations. These applications use the data both to be able to locate a parcel at any time and to optimize the performance of the transportation and distribution strategy. Similar concerns rule the management of data tracking airline passengers and their luggage. Ecologists have been observing animals and, whenever possible, tracking them via transmitters and satellites, mainly to understand animals' individual and group behaviors. Nowadays many enterprises are looking to extract information about their potential consumers out of the tracks left by their smartphones, electronic tablets, or access to social networks such as Flickr and Foursquare that record the geographic position of their users.
Traditionally, data about movement have been captured using static facilities, for example, sensors producing traffic flow measures or detecting an animal's presence. Data acquisition facilities changed drastically with the availability of embedded positioning devices (e.g., GPS).
Las Cumbres Observatory Global Telescope Network (LCOGT) is currently building a new kind of general-purpose astronomical facility: a fully robotic network of telescopes of 2m, 1m and 0.4m apertures and homogeneous instrumentation. A pan-network approach to scheduling (rather than per individual telescope) offers redundancy in the event of poor weather or technical failure, as well as the ability to observe a target around the clock. Here we describe the network design and instrumentation under development, together with the main science programmes already being lead by LCOGT staff.
Reflective display technologies aim to enable the delivery of dynamic digital content to devices that have the look and feel of ink on paper. We are presenting herein a novel device architecture design and proprietary electrically addressable inks, which enable low power, disruptive, print-like full color reflective display that can exceed the chromaticity represented by the Specifications for Newsprint Advertising Production (SNAP) standard. We are approaching the challenge of generating bright high-quality reflective color images from the perspective of printing by stacking electro-optic layers of subtractive colorants to address every available color at every location. Using in-plane optical effects, our novel media technology provides fast switching between clear and color states. Thin, flexible electronic media based on this technology has been fabricated by imprinting three-dimensional micro-scale structures with a continuous roll-to-roll (R2R) manufacturing platform. HP’s combination of novel device architecture, proprietary inks, and R2R manufacturing platform enables the required attributes for electronic media such as flexibility, robustness, low power, transparency, print-quality color, and scalability at low cost. The structure property relationship of surfactants has been carried out; their impact on performance of display devices has been studied. These results have been applied to improve the performance of electronic inks. We have demonstrated 3-layer stacked segmented reflective display prototypes, as well as pixelated stacked color reflective display prototypes. The innovations described in this paper are applicable to electronic skins for customizable electronic surfaces and are currently being developed further for electronic paper and signage markets.
GaInAs/GaAs/GaInP multiquantum well laser structures have been grown by chemical beam epitaxy (CBE) using conventional sources (hydrides as group V element sources). Large area lasers were photolitographically defined and mounted for continuous wave (CW) measurements. CW output power levels of 600 mW at 25°C are reported from 100 μm wide, 300 μm long laser diodes without any facet treatment. At these levels, the delivered current is 2A, with an associated voltage of less than 1.7 V. The characteristic temperature of the structure is 95 K.
The same structures were then grown using tertiarybutylarsine (TBAs) and tertiarybutylphosphine (TBP). The large area laser diodes were characterized under pulsed conditions. For a 300 μm long cavity, threshold current density of 390 A/cm2 and external quantum efficiency of 0.6 W/A (2 facets) were obtained, demonstrating the suitability of TBP and TBAs as substitutes of arsine and phosphine in chemical beam epitaxy for laser fabrication.
Many food components can influence satiety or energy intake. Combined together, these food components could represent an interesting dietary strategy in the prevention and treatment of obesity. The aims of this study were: 1) to determine the effect of a functional food in the form of a healthy meal course on subsequent energy intake and satiety; 2) to verify if it is possible to maintain palatability while preserving the satiating effects of the test meal. Thirteen subjects were invited to eat two lunch sessions: healthy and control meal courses (2090 kJ/meal). Anthropometric and ad libitum food intake measurements, and visual analogue scales (VAS) were performed during the two lunch sessions. The healthy main course acutely decreased energy intake during the rest of the meal ( − 744 kJ, P ≤ 0·0001) and lipid ( − 6 %, P ≤ 0·0001) compared with the control meal. VAS ratings during the course of the testing showed a meal effect for hunger, desire to eat and prospective food consumption (P ≤ 0·05) and a time effect for all appetite sensations (P ≤ 0·0001). VAS scores on hunger ratings were lower for the healthy meal (P ≤ 0·05), whereas fullness ratings were higher shortly after the healthy main course (P ≤ 0·05). The healthy meal produced a slightly higher palatability rating but this effect was not statistically significant. These results suggest that it is possible to design a healthy meal that decreases spontaneous energy intake and hunger without compromising palatability.
Yb3+–Er3+–codoped phosphate glasses have been studied in the context of
research for eye-safe laser source near 1540 nm, wavelength corresponding to the
4I13/2→4I15/2 Er3+– transition. Undoped and doped
glasses of the composition La2O3–Li2O–P2O5 have been synthesised.
Absorption from both the 2F7/2 Yb3+–ground state and the
4I15/2 Er3+–ground state, excited state absorption
4I13/2→4I9/2 Er3+–transition, emission spectra,
decay time measurements and Raman scattering have been investigated by using laser
spectroscopic techniques. The Judd-Ofelt intensity parameters Ωt (t = 2, 4, 6)
for Er3+ have been calculated in order to determine the radiative lifetimes, the
branching ratios of the transitions and the line strength of the excited state
absorption 4I13/2→4I9/2. A thermal conductivity
measurement has also been realised. In this paper, the Mayn spectroscopic properties of Yb3+–Er3+–codoped
LaLiP4O12 will be discussed and compared with other
Yb3+–Er3+–codoped phosphate glasses.
J. W. Brahan, Institute for Information Technology National Research Council Ottawa Canada K1A 0R6,
B. Farley, Institute for Information Technology National Research Council Ottawa Canada K1A 0R6,
R. A. Orchard, Institute for Information Technology National Research Council Ottawa Canada K1A 0R6,
A. Parent, Institute for Information Technology National Research Council Ottawa Canada K1A 0R6,
C. S. Phan, Institute for Information Technology National Research Council Ottawa Canada K1A 0R6
Most expert systems perform a task on behalf of the user. The task usually involves gathering and analyzing data, and recommending or initiating the appropriate action. However, expert systems can also play an important role in showing the user how to perform a task. In this role, the expert system provides support until it eventually becomes of decreasing importance as its knowledge base is transferred to the user. This category includes Help Systems, Coaching Systems, and Tutorial Systems. In this paper, we discuss the development of an Intelligent Advisor combining the three functions in a system to assist the user in acquiring and refining the knowledge required to carry out a design task. The combined system provides a means of introducing a training facility as an integral part of the work environment. The primary goal of our project is the creation of a system in which the generic advisor components are identified along with the methodology required to adapt them to specific applications. The conceptual modelling phase of database design was chosen as the application domain to develop the system and to demonstrate feasibility. An initial prototype has been implemented, which illustrates the operation of the system in each of the three modes as applied to database modelling. The technology is currently being extended to a second application domain.
ERMA (Entity-Relationship Modelling Advisor) is a knowledge-based system that serves as a consultant to the user of a computer-based design tool, providing advice as required.
Scholarly inquiry concerning influences on electoral outcomes in the presidential nomination process, though extensive, has been conducted almost exclusively with data collected at the individual level of analysis. The Michigan model of normal vote analysis suggests that long-term influences measured at the aggregate level, such as the sociodemographic, economic, and ideological characteristics of the states, are also important in determining electoral outcomes. We present an aggregate-level analysis of state characteristics that affected the Hart, Jackson, and Mondale vote proportions in the 1984 Democratic caucuses and primaries. Our primary election models explain between 65% and 83% of the variance in candidate vote shares, with sociodemographic and economic factors as the leading indicators. In the caucuses, we find that campaign spending and sociodemographic influences are dominant in models that explain between 38% and 81% of the variance. We conclude with a brief discussion of what our findings mean for future Democratic candidates.
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