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We have observed the G23 field of the Galaxy AndMass Assembly (GAMA) survey using the Australian Square Kilometre Array Pathfinder (ASKAP) in its commissioning phase to validate the performance of the telescope and to characterise the detected galaxy populations. This observation covers ~48 deg2 with synthesised beam of 32.7 arcsec by 17.8 arcsec at 936MHz, and ~39 deg2 with synthesised beam of 15.8 arcsec by 12.0 arcsec at 1320MHz. At both frequencies, the root-mean-square (r.m.s.) noise is ~0.1 mJy/beam. We combine these radio observations with the GAMA galaxy data, which includes spectroscopy of galaxies that are i-band selected with a magnitude limit of 19.2. Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) infrared (IR) photometry is used to determine which galaxies host an active galactic nucleus (AGN). In properties including source counts, mass distributions, and IR versus radio luminosity relation, the ASKAP-detected radio sources behave as expected. Radio galaxies have higher stellar mass and luminosity in IR, optical, and UV than other galaxies. We apply optical and IR AGN diagnostics and find that they disagree for ~30% of the galaxies in our sample. We suggest possible causes for the disagreement. Some cases can be explained by optical extinction of the AGN, but for more than half of the cases we do not find a clear explanation. Radio sources aremore likely (~6%) to have an AGN than radio quiet galaxies (~1%), but the majority of AGN are not detected in radio at this sensitivity.
In this paper we estimate a New-Keynesian dynamic stochastic general equilibrium (NK DSGE) model with heterogeneity in price and wage setting behavior. In a recent study, Coibion and Gorodnichenko develop a DSGE model, in which firms follow four different types of price setting schemes: sticky prices, sticky information, rule-of-thumb, or flexible prices. We enrich Coibion and Gorodnichenko framework by incorporating heterogeneity in nominal wage setting behavior among households. We solve this DSGE model and estimate it using Bayesian techniques for the US economy from 1955 to 2008. The estimation results show the relevance of heterogeneity in wage setting among households. More importantly, we identify qualitative and quantitative business cycle features allowed by the heterogeneity in wage rigidity, such as the persistence in price and wage inflation, which a standard NK model with only Calvo-type wage rigidity fails to achieve. We also show that modeling wage-rigidity heterogeneity—as opposed to standard Calvo wages—amplifies the macroeconomic output fluctuations resulting from a technology shock while it mitigates the output fluctuations following a monetary tightening.
To assess the effect of topical betahistine on Eustachian tube function in subjectively abnormal subjects in a hyperbaric chamber.
Active and passive Eustachian tube function was examined using tympanometry in a pressure chamber.
Active Eustachian tube function was tested against the negative middle ear pressure induced by increasing the chamber pressure to +3 kPa. One voluntary swallow decreased middle-ear pressure by a mean of 1.36 kPa. Passive Eustachian tube function was tested by measuring spontaneous Eustachian tube openings as the chamber pressure dropped from +10 kPa to ambient. Four distinct patterns of Eustachian tube behaviour were seen, three of which indicated Eustachian tube dysfunction. Betahistine had no positive effect on Eustachian tube opening, although previous animal studies had suggested a beneficial effect.
Topical betahistine had no effect on Eustachian tube function. Combining a hyperbaric chamber with tympanometry proved ideal for evaluating Eustachian tube function.
The Psychiatric Genomics Consortium (PGC) has made major advances in the molecular etiology of MDD, confirming that MDD is highly polygenic. Pathway enrichment results from PGC meta-analyses can also be used to help inform molecular drug targets. Prior to any knowledge of molecular biomarkers for MDD, drugs targeting molecular pathways (MPs) proved successful in treating MDD. It is possible that examining polygenicity within specific MPs implicated in MDD can further refine molecular drug targets.
Using a large case–control GWAS based on low-coverage whole genome sequencing (N = 10 640) in Han Chinese women, we derived polygenic risk scores (PRS) for MDD and for MDD specific to each of over 300 MPs previously shown to be relevant to psychiatric diagnoses. We then identified sets of PRSs, accounting for critical covariates, significantly predictive of case status.
Over and above global MDD polygenic risk, polygenic risk within the GO: 0017144 drug metabolism pathway significantly predicted recurrent depression after multiple testing correction. Secondary transcriptomic analysis suggests that among genes in this pathway, CYP2C19 (family of Cytochrome P450) and CBR1 (Carbonyl Reductase 1) might be most relevant to MDD. Within the cases, pathway-based risk was additionally associated with age at onset of MDD.
Results indicate that pathway-based risk might inform etiology of recurrent major depression. Future research should examine whether polygenicity of the drug metabolism gene pathway has any association with clinical presentation or treatment response. We discuss limitations to the generalizability of these preliminary findings, and urge replication in future research.
Two new species of Malpighiaceae are proposed: Hiraea costaricensis C.E.Anderson and H. polyantha C.E.Anderson. Hiraea costaricensis is characterised by the presence of basifixed hairs on the stems and leaves; H. polyantha, of Colombia, is distinctive in its large inflorescences, composed of c.100 flowers. Collections of the novelties had been associated with Hiraea smilacina Standl., a species that traditionally had been thought conspecific with H. quapara (Aubl.) Sprague; they are immediately separated by their fruits. In Hiraea smilacina the schizocarps break into three butterfly-shaped samaras, as is typical for the genus. The fruit of Hiraea quapara is spherical, composed of three mericarps covered by a network of reduced winglets. Hiraea smilacina is found from southern Mexico through Central America, except El Salvador and Nicaragua, and has been collected also in Colombia and Ecuador. Hiraea quapara is known mainly from French Guiana, with one collection from adjacent Suriname and two from Amapá, Brazil. All taxa are fully described and illustrated.
Accurate phase characterization of the alteration products of rad-waste requires the separation and identification of scattered individual grains from among the bulk product. These grains are typically 5 to 100 μm in size. Bulk x-ray powder diffraction will normally not detect these minor phases, and even if the phase can be detected, it often may not be identifiable. The use of the Gandolfi technique with the individual particle not only facilitates the identification, but also allows the assignment of the identification to the specific grain.
Correction factors, termed α-factors, similar to those defined by LaChance and Traill have been generated by the addition of variable, known amounts of individual oxides, or other compounds, to a base cement sample and measuring the x-ray intensities of the elements of interest. The effects of all common constituents of cement on the determination of CaO, SiO2 and Al2O3 were found. Factors for rhodium and chromium primary radiation were determined and, in general, showed small but significant differences. The factors for rhodium at 50kV and 30kV were substantia11y identical. The correction factors were tested through the use of the NBS 1011- 1016 cements as reference standards to analyze the new proposed NBS cement series. The correction factors not only furnished improved calibration curves, but also allowed the determination of CaO, Al2O3 and SiO2 with an average deviation of less than 0.2% (absolute) from the provisional values furnished with the standard samples.
Objectives: Children with acquired brain injury (ABI) can present with disruptive behavior, which is often a consequence of injury and parent factors. Parent factors are associated with child disruptive behavior. Furthermore, disinhibition in the child also leads to disruptive behavior. However, it is unclear how these factors interact. We investigated whether parental factors influence child disruptive behavior following ABI and how these factors interact. Methods: Parents of 77 children with ABI participated in the study. Parent factors (executive dysfunction, trait-anxiety), potential intervention targets (dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress, child disinhibition), and child disruptive behavior were assessed. A hypothetical model based on the literature was tested using mediation and path analysis. Results: Mediation analysis revealed that child disinhibition and dysfunctional parenting practices mediated the association of parent factors and child disruptive behavior. Parents’ executive dysfunction mediated the association of dysfunctional parenting practices, parental stress and parent trait-anxiety. Parenting practices mediated the association of executive dysfunction and child disruptive behavior. Path analysis indices indicated good model adjustment. Comparative and Tucker-Lewis Index were >0.95, and the root mean square error of approximation was 0.059, with a chi-square of 0.25. Conclusions: A low level of parental trait-anxiety may be required to reduce dysfunctional parenting practices and child disinhibition. Impairments in child disinhibition can be exacerbated when parents present with high trait-anxiety. Child disinhibition is the major contributor of disruptive behavior reported by parents and teachers. The current study provides evidence of parent anxiety and child disinhibition as possible modifiable intervention targets for reducing child disruptive behavior. (JINS, 2019, 25, 237–248)