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The amount of mathematics invented for number-theoretic reasons is impressive. It includes much of complex analysis, the re-foundation of algebraic geometry on commutative algebra, group cohomology, homological algebra, and the theory of motives. Zeta and L-functions sit at the meeting point of all these theories and have played a profound role in shaping the evolution of number theory. This book presents a big picture of zeta and L-functions and the complex theories surrounding them, combining standard material with results and perspectives that are not made explicit elsewhere in the literature. Particular attention is paid to the development of the ideas surrounding zeta and L-functions, using quotes from original sources and comments throughout the book, pointing the reader towards the relevant history. Based on an advanced course given at Jussieu in 2013, it is an ideal introduction for graduate students and researchers to this fascinating story.
Longitudinal studies of the relationship between cognition and functioning in bipolar disorder are scarce, although cognition is thought to be a key determinant of functioning. The causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning in bipolar disorder is unknown.
We sought to examine the direction of causality between cognitive performance and functional outcome over 2 years in a large cohort of euthymic patients with bipolar disorder.
The sample consisted of 272 adults diagnosed with bipolar disorder who were euthymic at baseline, 12 and 24 months. All participants were recruited via the FondaMental Advanced Centers of Expertise in Bipolar Disorders. We used a battery of tests, assessing six domains of cognition at baseline and 24 months. Residual depressive symptoms and psychosocial functioning were measured at baseline and 12 and 24 months. The possible causal structure between cognition and psychosocial functioning was investigated with cross-lagged panel models with residual depressive symptoms as a covariate.
The analyses support a causal model in which cognition moderately predicts and is causally primary to functional outcome 1 year later, whereas psychosocial functioning does not predict later cognitive performance. Subthreshold depressive symptoms concurrently affected functioning at each time of measure.
Our results are compatible with an upward causal effect of cognition on functional outcome in euthymic patients with bipolar disorder. Neuropsychological assessment may help specify individual prognoses. Further studies are warranted to confirm this causal link and evaluate cognitive remediation, before or simultaneously with functional remediation, as an intervention to improve functional outcome.
The electricity sector is in the midst of a structural change driven by new technologies. In Brazil, the electricity sector regulation has mechanisms to foster innovation, including investments in R&D. Recently, the regulatory agency and the industry have been calling for approaches to increase the rate at which R&D departments generate solutions that end up being adopted. As a result, novel approaches to R&D project management have entered the agenda. In this context, the objective of this paper is to characterise Agile Product Development and its application in a highly regulated sector. The paper presents a systematic literature review with the debates about Agile and new product development. Then, a case study exploring an early adoption of the Agile approach in R&D project management in the Brazilian electricity sector is presented. Results include the identification of the Agile features most frequently mentioned in the literature. Moreover, the case study explores the Agile features that were more easily absorbed in early adoption, such as iterative patterns, and discusses implementation challenges in team structure, feedback loops, and communication.
Cognitive deficits are a well-established feature of bipolar disorders (BD), even during periods of euthymia, but risk factors associated with cognitive deficits in euthymic BD are still poorly understood. We aimed to validate classification criteria for the identification of clinically significant cognitive impairment, based on psychometric properties, to estimate the prevalence of neuropsychological deficits in euthymic BD, and identify risk factors for cognitive deficits using a multivariate approach.
We investigated neuropsychological performance in 476 euthymic patients with BD recruited via the French network of BD expert centres. We used a battery of tests, assessing five domains of cognition. Five criteria for the identification of neuropsychological impairment were tested based on their convergent and concurrent validity. Uni- and multivariate logistic regressions between cognitive impairment and several clinical and demographic variables were performed to identify risk factors for neuropsychological impairment in BD.
One cut-off had satisfactory psychometric properties and yielded a prevalence of 12.4% for cognitive deficits in euthymic BD. Antipsychotics use were associated with the presence of a cognitive deficit.
This is the first study to validate a criterion for clinically significant cognitive impairment in BD. We report a lower prevalence of cognitive impairment than previous studies, which may have overestimated its prevalence. Patients with euthymic BD and cognitive impairment may benefit from cognitive remediation.
The relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognition and functioning in patients with euthymic bipolar disorder is a subject of debate.
To assess whether cognition mediates the association between residual depressive symptoms and functioning in patients with bipolar disorder who were euthymic.
We included 241 adults with euthymic bipolar disorder in a multicentre cross-sectional study. We used a battery of tests to assess six cognition domains. A path analysis was then used to perform a mediation analysis of the relationship between residual depressive symptoms, cognitive components and functioning.
Only verbal and working memory were significantly associated with better functioning. Residual depressive symptoms were associated with poorer functioning. No significant relationship was found between residual depressive symptoms and any cognitive component.
Cognition and residual depressive symptoms appear to be two independent sources of variation in the functioning of people with euthymic bipolar disorder.
We start developing a notion of reciprocity sheaves, generalizing Voevodsky’s homotopy invariant presheaves with transfers which were used in the construction of his triangulated categories of motives. We hope that reciprocity sheaves will eventually lead to the definition of larger triangulated categories of motivic nature, encompassing non-homotopy invariant phenomena.
Bipolar disorder is a highly heritable polygenic disorder. Recent
enrichment analyses suggest that there may be true risk variants for
bipolar disorder in the expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL) in the
We sought to assess the impact of eQTL variants on bipolar disorder risk
by combining data from both bipolar disorder genome-wide association
studies (GWAS) and brain eQTL.
To detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) that influence
expression levels of genes associated with bipolar disorder, we jointly
analysed data from a bipolar disorder GWAS (7481 cases and 9250 controls)
and a genome-wide brain (cortical) eQTL (193 healthy controls) using a
Bayesian statistical method, with independent follow-up replications. The
identified risk SNP was then further tested for association with
hippocampal volume (n = 5775) and cognitive performance
(n = 342) among healthy individuals.
Integrative analysis revealed a significant association between a brain
eQTL rs6088662 on chromosome 20q11.22 and bipolar disorder (log Bayes
factor = 5.48; bipolar disorder P =
5.85×10–5). Follow-up studies across multiple independent
samples confirmed the association of the risk SNP (rs6088662) with gene
expression and bipolar disorder susceptibility (P =
3.54×10–8). Further exploratory analysis revealed that
rs6088662 is also associated with hippocampal volume and cognitive
performance in healthy individuals.
Our findings suggest that 20q11.22 is likely a risk region for bipolar
disorder; they also highlight the informative value of integrating
functional annotation of genetic variants for gene expression in
advancing our understanding of the biological basis underlying complex
disorders, such as bipolar disorder.
We show that the torsion in the group of indecomposable
-cycles on a smooth projective variety over an algebraically closed field is isomorphic to a twist of its Brauer group, away from the characteristic. In particular, this group is infinite as soon as
. We derive a new insight into Roǐtman’s theorem on torsion
-cycles over a surface.
Let X be a smooth projective variety over a finite field . We discuss the unramified cohomology group H3nr(X, ℚ/ℤ(2)). Several conjectures put together imply that this group is finite. For certain classes of threefolds, H3nr(X, ℚ/ℤ(2)) actually vanishes. It is an open question whether this holds for arbitrary threefolds. For a threefold X equipped with a fibration onto a curve C, the generic fibre of which is a smooth projective surface V over the global field (C), the vanishing of H3nr(X, ℚ/ℤ(2)) together with the Tate conjecture for divisors on X implies a local-global principle of Brauer–Manin type for the Chow group of zero-cycles on V. This sheds new light on work started thirty years ago.
In a recent paper, Merkurjev showed that for a smooth proper variety X over a field k, the functor M* ↦ A0(X, M0) from cycle modules to abelian groups is corepresented by a cycle module constructed on the Chow group of 0-cycles of X. We show that if “proper” is relaxed, the result still holds by replacing the Chow group of 0-cycles by the 0-th Suslin homology group of X.
We study the slice filtration for the K-theory of a sheaf of Azumaya algebras A, and for the motive of a Severi-Brauer variety, the latter in the case of a central simple algebra of prime degree over a field. Using the Beilinson–Lichtenbaum conjecture, we apply our results to show the vanishing of SK2(A) for a central simple algebra A of square-free index (prime to the characteristic). This proves a conjecture of Merkurjev.
A robust silicon gas sensor chip (platinum heater, low deformation membrane) has been designed and successfully operated with various metal oxide nanoparticles synthesized by an organometallic route (SnO2, ZnO) and deposited by a generic ink-jet method. High quality and micron thick layers are obtained and the CO gas sensitivity is presented.
Yves Bertot,Gérard Huet, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), Rocquencourt,Jean-Jacques Lévy, Institut National de Recherche en Informatique et en Automatique (INRIA), Rocquencourt,Gordon Plotkin, University of Edinburgh
Using the ‘slice filtration’, defined by effectivity conditions on Voevodsky's triangulated motives, we define spectral sequences converging to their motivic cohomology and étale motivic cohomology. These spectral sequences are particularly interesting in the case of mixed Tate motives as their $E_2$-terms then have a simple description. In particular this yields spectral sequences converging to the motivic cohomology of a split connected reductive group. We also describe in detail the multiplicative structure of the motive of a split torus.
The increased number of MEMS devices that are fabricated by bonding two or more bulk micromachined silicon wafers has highlighted the need to produce reliable silicon fusion bonds. The current study focuses on employing a four-point bend delamination specimen to measure silicon fusion bond strength as a function of processing conditions. The specimen, which is composed of two bonded layers and an initial notch, permits the measurement of a mixed-mode critical strain energy rate, GC, at the interface. This specimen geometry is advantageous because it does not require measurement of crack length to calculate the strain energy release rate and is insensitive to damage near the specimen edges. The fact that the interface is loaded under mixed-mode conditions presents difficulties in achieving stable crack propagation in well bonded specimens. Attempts were made to eliminate this problem by reducing the effective bond toughness by etching shallow grooves in the wafer surfaces to reduce the bonded area. Testing revealed that while this approach reduced the effective toughness of the interface, it did not prevent crack deflection in well bonded samples. Despite the limitations of the specimen, data was obtained for silicon fusion bonds fabricated under various annealing and contacting conditions. Test results indicate an increase in bond toughness with annealing temperature and time. The data also suggests that the contacting pressure and duration have little effect on bond quality. The specimen, while limited to characterizing bonds with lower toughness, proved straightforward to fabricate and test.
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