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Background: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) observed increased mortality among neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) patients with central-line–associated bloodstream infection (CLABSI) starting in 2017. In this study, we compared NICU patients with CLABSIs before and after 2017, and quantified the impact of epidemiological factors on 30-day survival. Methods: We included 1,276 NICU patients from 8–16 participating CNISP hospitals from the pre-2017 period (2009–2016) and the post-2017 period (2017–2022) using standardized definitions and questionnaires. We used Cox regression modeling to assess the impact of age at date of positive culture, sex, birthweight, CLABSI microorganism, region of the country, and surveillance period (before 2017 vs after 2017) on time to 30-day all-cause mortality from date of positive culture. Gestational age was not available for this analysis. We reported model outputs as hazard ratios with 95% CIs. Results: In total, 769 (60%) NICU CLABSIs were reported in the pre-2017 period and 507 (40%) in the post-2017 period. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 8% (n = 100 of 1,276) overall, and significantly higher after 2017 (12%, n = 61 of 507) than before 2017 (5%, n = 39 of 769) (P < .001).
During the post-2017 period, cases were significantly younger: 16 days (IQR, 9–33) versus 21 days (IQR, 11–49) (P = .002). Median days from ICU admission to infection were shorter: 14 (IQR, 8–31) versus 19 (IQR, 10–41) (P < .001). More gram-negative CLABSIs were identified (29% vs 24%; P = .040) and fewer gram-positive CLABSIs were identified (64% vs 72%; P = .006) compared to the pre-2017 period. Mortality was higher in CLABSIs caused by gram-negative bacteria (15%, n = 50 of 328) than gram-positive bacteria (4.4%, n = 39 of 877) (P < .001), and mortality was higher in neonates with birthweight <1,000 g (11%, n = 71 of 673) compared to those weighing ≥1,000 g (5%, n = 28 of 560) (P < .001).
Adjusting for all other factors, survival modeling indicated that NICU CLABSIs identified in the post-2017 period had 2.12 (95% CI, 1.23–3.66) times the hazard ratio of 30-day all-cause mortality compared to those before 2017 (P < .006). Those identified with a gram-positive bacterium had a 0.28 hazard ratio (95% CI, 0.12–0.65) of 30-day mortality compared to those with a gram-negative bacterium or fungus (P = .003). In the fully adjusted model, age, sex, and birthweight were not significantly associated with NICU CLABSI survival. Conclusions: NICU patients with CLABSIs had significantly higher all-cause mortality between 2017–2022 compared to 2009–2016, and those who acquired gram-positive–associated CLABSIs had improved survival compared to other organisms. Further work is needed to identify and understand factors driving the increased mortality among NICU CLABSI patients from 2017–2022.
The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has placed significant burden on healthcare systems. We compared Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) epidemiology before and during the pandemic across 71 hospitals participating in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program. Using an interrupted time series analysis, we showed that CDI rates significantly increased during the COVID-19 pandemic.
Cerebrospinal fluid shunt–associated surgical site infection surveillance for 3 months compared to 12 months after surgery captures 83% of cases with no significant differences in patient characteristics, surgery types, or pathogens. A shorter 3-month follow-up can reduce resource use and allow for more timely reporting of healthcare-associated infection rates for hospitals.
Background: This review describes the epidemiology of carbapenemase-producing organisms (CPO) in both the community and hospitalized populations in the province of Alberta. Methods: Newly identified CPO-positive individuals from April 1, 2013, to March 31, 2018, were retrospectively reviewed from 3 data sources, which shared a common provincial CPO case definition: (1) positive CPO results from the Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, which provides all referral and confirmatory CPO testing, (2) CPO cases reported to Alberta Health, and (3) CPO surveillance from Alberta Health Services Infection Prevention and Control (IPC). The 3 data sources were collated, and initial CPO cases were classified according to their likely location of acquisition: hospital-acquired, hospital-identified, on admission, and community-identified. Risk factors and adverse outcomes were obtained from linkage to administrative data. Results: In total, 171 unique individuals were newly identified with a first-time CPO case. Also, 15% (25 of 171) were hospital-acquired (HA), 21% (36 of 171) were hospital-identified (HI), 33% (57 of 171) were on admission, and 31% (53 of 171) were community identified. Overall, 9% (5 of 171) resided in long-term care facilities. Of all patients in acute-care facilities, 30% (35 of 118) had infections and 70% were colonized. Overall, 38% (65 of 171) had an acute-care admission in the 1 year prior to CPO identification; 59% (63 of 106) of those who did not have a previous admission had received healthcare outside Alberta. A large proportion of on-admission cases (81%, 46 of 57) and community-identified (66%, 33 of 53) cases did not have any acute-care admissions in Alberta in the previous year. Overall, 10% (14 of 171) had ICU admissions in Alberta within 30 days of CPO identification, and 5% (8 of 171) died within 30 days. The most common carbapenemase gene identified was NDM-1 (53%, 90 of 171). Conclusions: These findings highlight the robust nature of Alberta’s provincial CPO surveillance network. We reviewed 3 different databases (laboratory, health ministry, IPC) to obtain comprehensive data to better understand the epidemiology of CPO in both the community and hospital settings. More than half of the individuals with CPO were initially identified in the community or on admission. Most had received healthcare outside Alberta, and no acute-care admissions occurred in Alberta in the previous year. It is important to be aware of the growing reservoir of CPO outside the hospital setting because it could impact future screening and management practices.
Background: Bloodstream infections (BSIs) due to methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) are important causes of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. Long-term national MRSA BSI surveillance establishes rates for internal and external comparison and provide insight into epidemiologic, molecular, and resistance trends. Here, we present and discuss National MRSA BSI incidence rates and trends over time in Canadian acute-care hospitals from 2008 to 2018. Methods: The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Programme (CNISP) is a collaborative effort of the Association of Medical Microbiology and Infectious Disease Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Since 1995, the CNISP has conducted hospital-based sentinel surveillance of MRSA BSIs. Data were collected using standardized definitions and forms from hospitals that participate in the CNISP (48 hospitals in 2008 to 62 hospitals in 2018). For each MRSA BSI identiﬁed, the medical record was reviewed for clinical and demographic information and when possible, 1 blood-culture isolate per patient was submitted to a central laboratory for further molecular characterization and susceptibility testing. Results: From 2008 to 2013, MRSA BSI rates per 10,000 patient days were relatively stable (0.60–0.56). Since 2014, MRSA BSI rates have gradually increased from 0.66 to 1.05 in 2018. Although healthcare-associated (HA) MRSA BSI has shown a minimal increase (0.40 in 2014 to 0.51 in 2018), community-acquired (CA) MRSA BSI has increased by 150%, from 0.20 in 2014 to 0.50 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Laboratory characterization revealed that the proportion of isolates identified as CMRSA 2 (USA 100) decreased each year, from 39% in 2015 to 28% in 2018, while CMRSA 10 (USA 300) has increased from 41% to 47%. Susceptibility testing shows a decrease in clindamycin resistance from 82% in 2013 to 41% in 2018. Conclusions: Over the last decade, ongoing prospective MRSA BSI surveillance has shown relatively stable HA-MRSA rates, while CA-MRSA BSI rates have risen substantially. The proportion of isolates most commonly associated with HA-MRSA BSI (CMRSA2/USA 100) are decreasing and, given that resistance trends are tied to the prevalence of specific epidemic types, a large decrease in clindamycin resistance has been observed. MRSA BSI surveillance has shown a changing pattern in the epidemiology and laboratory characterization of MRSA BSI. The addition of hospitals in later years that may have had higher rates of CA-MRSA BSI could be a confounding factor. Continued comprehensive national surveillance will provide valuable information to address the challenges of infection prevention and control of MRSA BSI in hospitals.
Background: Stollery Children’s Hospital (SCH) is a tertiary-care pediatric hospital with a complex infrastructure: 3 NICUs located at 3 different hospitals, and all of the pediatric inpatient beds, PICU, PCICU, and a medical-surgical NICU at the main SCH site shared buildings with an academic adult hospital. We describe a collaborative process used to develop standardized SCH Infection Prevention and Control (IPC) recommendations. Methods: The SCH IPC formed a working group with Patient and Family-Centered Care (PFCC) and family representatives in 2014 to enhance the engagement of families in regards to IPC issues and initiatives. The working group identified inconsistent messages provided to families when a child was admitted as a patient requiring additional precautions (PRAP). The working group then developed a framework of key questions to be answered for family care providers of PRAP. The working group held several consultative meetings with frontline staff followed by a review of published guidelines and consultations with other pediatric hospitals about contentious issues. A consensus meeting with all key stakeholders was held to finalize IPC recommendations. Results: The key contentious issues included (1) whether personal protective equipment is required for family care providers who stay overnight with PRAP and (2) whether family care providers of PRAP are allowed to access nutrition centers on clinical units and family lounges in PCICU–PICU–NICU that were stocked with free hot meals for the families. No directly applicable recommendation was available IPC guidelines on these issues. Discussions of these topics were directed by PFCC at family councils of various clinical programs with efforts to seek opinions from more family representatives. Expert opinions and current practice were also obtained from Canadian hospitals through emails and from US hospitals through SHEA Open Forum by ICP. A final consensus meeting revisiting all available information was held, and a new Stollery IPC guideline was created with families as partners sharing the IPC vision of minimizing transmission risk at SCH. Conclusions: A consultative engagement and consensus process was successful in the development of IPC recommendations for family care providers for PRAP for implementation at a tertiary-care pediatric hospital with a complex infrastructure. The next step is to develop family-friendly educational and resource materials with clear and concise messages.
Background: The medical device reprocessing department (MDRD) is a crucial patient safety area with checkpoints to ensure appropriate reprocessing. Objective: We report the application of molecular pathology in the investigation of potential blood and body fluid exposure (BBFE) during endoscopy. Methods: When there is a potential BBFE from a medical device, our hospital has a systematic process whereby the clinical area involves the MDRD and the infection prevention control (IPC) team. The MDRD provides reprocessing documentation, including detailed information regarding the prior use of the devices. The clinician and the IPC physician discuss the risk of BBFE. If patient disclosure occurs, the IPC physician provides follow-up as appropriate. This report illustrates the collaboration of clinicians, the IPC team, the MDRD, pathologists, and molecular pathologists in investigating the possibility of residual human tissue and BBFE during endoscopy. Case reports: Two independent but similar events occurred in September 2016 and September 2019 in the pediatric endoscopy suite at our site, a tertiary-care pediatric hospital with 163 beds in Edmonton, Canada. During both endoscopies, the pediatric gastroenterologists observed a piece of tissue ejected from the gastroscope into the intestinal lumen when the biopsy forceps were pushed out of the channel for the first time. This observation raised concerns of possible gaps in the reprocessing of the endoscope and residual tissue remaining in the working channel after its last use. Both gastroenterologists were able to retrieve the presumed foreign tissue; however, both patients had possible BBFE because the mucosal surface was breached by the biopsy forceps. The MDRD reprocessing of both endoscopes was reviewed, and no gap was identified. In discussion with the pathologists and molecular pathologists, human identity testing using genetic markers was performed on the biopsy blocks of the previous patient on whom the endoscope was used, the potentially exposed patient, and the presumed foreign tissue for each event. The test results indicated that the presumed foreign tissue was in fact from the potentially exposed patient and therefore there was no BBFE. It is presumed that the working channel itself captured a small amount of the patient’s tissue during scope insertion. The results were a relief to the patients and families. Conclusions: It is prudent to investigate residual foreign tissue in a medical device that is being used on patients with mucosal breaches. Molecular pathology involving human identity testing is a very useful tool in the investigation of these types of events.
Background: The association between antimicrobial use (AMU) and emergence of antimicrobial resistance is well documented. The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) has conducted sentinel surveillance of AMU at participating Canadian hospitals since 2009 resulting in the largest pan-Canadian hospital database of dispensed antimicrobials. Objectives: Describe interhospital variability of AMU across Canada. Methods: Hospitals submit annual AMU data based on patient days (PD). Antimicrobials were measured in defined daily doses (DDD) for adults using the WHO Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical (ATC) system. The AMU data among pediatric patients have been available since 2017 using days of therapy (DOT). Surveillance includes systemic antibacterial agents (J01 ATC codes), oral metronidazole, and oral vancomycin. AMU was assessed using quintiles, interquartile ranges (IQR), and relative IQRs (upper- and lower-quartile values divided by the median). Results: Between 2009 and 2018, 20–26 hospitals participated in adult surveillance each year (35 teaching hospitals and 3 nonteaching hospitals participated in ≥1 year). Over this period, overall AMU decreased by 13% at participating adult hospitals from 645 to 560 DDD per 1,000 PD. AMU varied substantially between hospitals, but this variability decreased over time (Fig. 1). In 2009, the IQRs for overall AMU spanned 309 DDD per 1,000 PD, and in 2018 it spanned only 103 DDD per 1,000 PD. This decrease in variability was due to large decreases in use among hospitals with high use in 2009–2010. Among hospitals in the highest use quintile in 2009–2010, AMU decreased, on average, 44 DDD per 1,000 PD each year. Among hospitals in the lowest use quintile in 2009–2010, AMU increased, on average, 6 DDD per 1,000 PD each year. In 2018, antibiotics with the largest absolute IQR variability were cefazolin (61–113 DDD per 1,000 PD), piperacillin-tazobactam (32–64 DDD per 1,000 PD), and vancomycin (24–49 DDD per 1,000 PD). Among antibiotics with ≥1 DDD per 1,000 PD, antibiotics with the largest relative IQR variability were tobramycin (0.3–6 DDD per 1,000 PD), cefadroxil (0.08–9 DDD per 1,000 PD), and linezolid (0.2–3 DDD per 1,000 PD). In 2018, the IQR for overall pediatric AMU (n = 7 teaching hospitals) was 426–581 DOT per 1,000 PD. Antibiotics with the largest IQRs were vancomycin (0.6–58 DOT per 1,000 PD), cefazolin (33–88 DOT per 1,000 PD), and tobramycin (3–57 DOT per 1,000 PD). Among antibiotics with ≥1 DOT per 1,000 PD in 2018, antibiotics with the largest relative IQRs were tobramycin (3–57 DOT per 1,000 PD), cefuroxime (1–6 DOT per 1,000 PD), and amoxicillin (8–42 DOT per 1,000 PD). Conclusions: There is wide variation in overall antibiotic use across hospitals. Variation between AMU at adult hospitals has decreased between 2009 and 2018; in 2018, antibiotics with the largest IQRs were cefazolin and piperacillin-tazobactam. Benchmarking AMU is crucial for informing antimicrobial stewardship efforts.
Funding: CNISP is funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Disclosures: Allison McGeer reports funds to her institution from Pfizer and Merck for projects for which she is the principal investigator. She also reports consulting fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, Sunovion, GSK, Pfizer, and Cidara.
Background: Healthcare services are increasingly shifting from inpatient to outpatient settings. Outpatient settings such as emergency departments (EDs), oncology clinics, dialysis clinics, and day surgery often involve invasive procedures with the risk of acquiring healthcare-associated infections (HAIs). As a leading cause of HAI, Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) in outpatient settings has not been sufficiently described in Canada. The Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) aims to describe the epidemiology, molecular characterization, and antimicrobial susceptibility of outpatient CDI across Canada. Methods: Epidemiologic data were collected from patients diagnosed with CDI from a network of 47 adult and pediatric CNISP hospitals. Patients presenting to an outpatient setting such as the ED or outpatient clinics were considered as outpatient CDI. Cases were considered HAIs if the patient had had a healthcare intervention within the previous 4 weeks, and they were considered community-associated if there was no history of hospitalization within the previous 12 weeks. Clostridioides difficile isolates were submitted to the National Microbiology Laboratory for testing during an annual 2-month targeted surveillance period. National and regional rates of CDI were stratified by outpatient location. Results: Between January 1, 2015, and June 30, 2019, 2,691 cases of outpatient-CDI were reported, and 348 isolates were available for testing. Most cases (1,475 of 2,691, 54.8%) were identified in outpatient clinics, and 72.8% (1,960 of 2,691) were classified as community associated. CDI cases per 100,000 ED visits were highest in 2015, at 10.3, and decreased to 8.1 in 2018. Rates from outpatient clinics decreased from 3.5 in 2016 to 2.7 in 2018 (Fig. 1). Regionally, CDI rates in the ED declined in Central Canada and increased in the West after 2016. Rates in outpatient clinics were >2 times higher in the West compared to other regions. RT027 associated with NAP1 was most common among ED patients (26 of 195, 13.3%), whereas RT106 associated with NAP11 was predominant in outpatient clinics (22 of 189, 11.6%). Overall, 10.4% of isolates were resistant to moxifloxacin, 0.5% were resistant to rifampin, and 24.2% were resistant to clindamycin. No resistance was observed for metronidazole, vancomycin, or tigecycline. Compared to CNISP inpatient CDI data, outpatients with CDI were younger (51.8 ± 23.3 vs 64.2 ± 21.6; P < .001), included more females (56.4% vs 50.9%; P < .001), and were more often treated with metronidazole (63.0% vs 56.1%; P < .001). Conclusions: For the first time, CDI cases identified in outpatient settings were characterized in a Canadian context. Outpatient CDI rates are decreasing overall, but they vary by region. Predominant ribotypes vary based on outpatient location. Outpatients with CDI are younger and are more likely female than inpatients with CDI.
Disclosures: Susy Hota reports contract research for Finch Therapeutics.
Background: Surgical site infection (SSI) after cerebrospinal fluids (CSF) shunt surgery is thought to be acquired intraoperatively. Biomaterial-associated infection can present up to 1 year after surgery, but many national systems have shortened follow-up to 90 days. We compared 3- versus 12-month follow-up periods to determine the nature of case ascertainment in the 2 periods. Methods: Participants of any age with placement of an internal CSF shunt or revision surgical manipulation of an existing internal shunt identified in the Canadian Nosocomial Infection Surveillance Program (CNISP) participating hospitals between 2006 and 2018 were eligible. We excluded patients with external shunting devices or culture-positive CSF at the time of surgery. Patients were followed for 12 months after surgery for the primary outcome of a CSF infection with a positive CSF culture by review of laboratory and health records. Patients were categorized as adult (aged ≥18 years) or pediatric (aged < 18 years). The infection rate was expressed as the number of CSF shunt-associated infections divided by the number of shunt surgeries per 100 procedures. Results: In total, 325 patients (53% female) met inclusion criteria in 14 hospitals from 7 provinces were identified. Overall, 46.1% of surgeries were shunt revisions and 90.3% of shunts were ventriculoperitoneal. For pediatric patients, the median age was 0.7 years (IQR, 0.2–7.0). For adult patients, the median age was 47.9 years (IQR, 29.6–64.6). The SSI rates per 100 procedures were 3.69 for adults and 3.65 for pediatrics. The overall SSI rates per 100 procedures at 3 and 12 months were 2.74 (n = 265) and 3.48 (n = 323), respectively. By 3 months (90 days), 82% of infection cases were identified (Fig. 1). The median time from procedure to SSI detection was 30 days (IQR, 10–65). No difference was found in the microbiology of the shunt infections at 3- and 12-month follow-ups. The most common pathogens were coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (43.6 %), followed by S. aureus (24.8 %) and Propionibacterium spp (6.5 %). No differences in age distribution, gender, surgery type (new or revision), shunt type, or infecting organisms were observed when 3- and 12-month periods were compared. Conclusions: CSF-SSI surveillance for 3 versus 12 months would capture 82.0% (95% CI, 77.5–86.0) of cases, with no significant differences in the patient characteristics, surgery types, or pathogens. A 3-month follow-up can reduce resources and allow for more timely reporting of infection rates.
Background: Nosocomial central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in hospitalized patients. CLABSI surveillance establishes rates for internal and external comparison, identifies risk factors, and allows assessment of interventions. Objectives: To determine the frequency of CLABSIs among adult patients admitted to intensive care units (ICUs) in CNISP hospitals and evaluate trends over time. Methods: CNISP is a collaborative effort of the Canadian Hospital Epidemiology Committee, the Association of Medical Microbiologists and Infectious Disease Canada and the Public Health Agency of Canada. Since 1995, CNISP has conducted hospital-based sentinel surveillance of healthcare-associated infections. Overall, 55 CNISP hospitals participated in ≥1 year of CLABSI surveillance. Adult ICUs are categorized as mixed ICUs or cardiovascular (CV) surgery ICUs. Data were collected using standardized definitions and collection forms. Line-day denominators for each participating ICU were collected. Negative-binomial regression was used to test for linear trends, with robust standard errors to account for clustering by hospital. We used the Fisher exact test to compare binary variables. Results: Each year, 28–42 adult ICUs participated in surveillance (27–37 mixed, 6–8 CV surgery). In both mixed ICUs and CV-ICUs, rates remained relatively stable between 2011 and 2018 (Fig. 1). In mixed ICUs, CLABSI rates were 1.0 per 1,000 line days in 2011, and 1.0 per 1,000 line days in 2018 (test for linear trend, P = .66). In CV-ICUs, CLABSI rates were 1.1 per 1,000 line days in 2011 and 0.8 per 1,000 line days in 2018 (P = .19). Case age and gender distributions were consistent across the surveillance period. The 30-day all-cause mortality rate was 29% in 2011 and in 2018 (annual range, 29%–35%). Between 2011 and 2018, the percentage of isolated microorganisms that were coagulase-negative staphylococci (CONS) decreased from 31% to 18% (P = .004). The percentage of other gram-positive organisms increased from 32% to 37% (P = .34); Bacillus increased from 0% to 4% of isolates and methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus from 2% to 6%). The gram-negative organisms increased from 21% to 27% (P = .19). Yeast represented 16% in 2011 and 18% in 2018; however, the percentage of yeast that were Candida albicans decreased over time (58% of yeast in 2011 and 30% in 2018; P = .04). Between 2011 and 2018, the most commonly identified species of microorganism in each year were CONS (18% in 2018) and Enterococcus spp (18% in 2018). Conclusions: Ongoing CLABSI surveillance has shown stable rates of CLABSI in adult ICUs from 2011 to 2018. The causative microorganisms have changed, with CONS decreasing from 31% to 18%.
Funding: CNISP is funded by the Public Health Agency of Canada.
Disclosures: Allison McGeer reports funds to her for studies, for which she is the principal investigator, from Pfizer and Merck, as well as consulting fees from Sanofi-Pasteur, Sunovion, GSK, Pfizer, and Cidara.
Canadian hospitals were made aware of the risk of Mycobacterium chimaera infection associated with heater-cooler units (HCUs) through alerts issued by the US food and Drug Administration (FDA) and the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). In response, most hospitals conducted retrospective reviews for infections, informed exposed patients, and initiated a requirement for informed consent with HCU use.
Central-line–associated bloodstream infections (CLABSI) are an important cause of morbidity and mortality in neonates. We aimed to determine whether intra-abdominal pathologies are an independent risk factor for CLABSI.
We performed a retrospective matched case–control study of infants admitted to the neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of the Montreal Children’s Hospital (Montreal) and the Royal Alexandra Hospital, Edmonton, Canada. CLABSI cases that occurred between April 2009 and March 2014 were identified through local infection control databases. For each case, up to 3 controls were matched (National Healthcare Safety Network [NHSN] birth weight category, chronological age, and central venous catheter (CVC) dwell time at the time of CLABSI onset). Data were analyzed using conditional logistic regression.
We identified 120 cases and 293 controls. According to a matched univariate analysis, the following variables were significant risk factors for CLABSI: active intra-abdominal pathology (odds ratio [OR], 3.4; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.8–6.4), abdominal surgery in the prior 7 days (OR, 3.5; 95% CI, 1.0–10.9); male sex (OR, 1.7; 95% CI, 1.1–2.6) and ≥3 heel punctures (OR, 4.0; 95% CI, 1.9–8.3). According to a multivariate matched analysis, intra-abdominal pathology (OR, 5.9; 95% CI, 2.5–14.1), and ≥3 heel punctures (OR, 5.4; 95% CI, 2.4–12.2) remained independent risk factors for CLABSI.
The presence of an active intra-abdominal pathology increased the risk of CLABSI by almost 6-fold. Similar to CLABSI in oncology patients, a subgroup of CLABSI with mucosal barrier injury should be considered for infants in the NICU with active intra-abdominal pathology.
The distribution of influenza A subtypes was studied in specimens recovered from patients in long-term care facility (LTCF) outbreaks and in non-LTCF outbreaks in Alberta, Canada, for 3 years before the influenza pandemic of 2009. We found that H3 but not HI was associated with infection in older adults. Therefore, H3 was more commonly found than HI in outbreaks in LTCFs.
We describe a norovirus outbreak in an acute adult psychiatric area in a tertiary care hospital. Containment of the outbreak was challenging because of the patients' psychiatric conditions and the area's configuration. On the basis of this experience, recommendations were made to help prevent a similar scenario in the future.
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