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Whereas there are numerous reports in the literature relating the impact of maternal nutritional status on subsequent birth outcome, much less is known about the long-term impact on infant growth after birth. Therefore, we conducted a prospective cohort study to investigate the association of maternal micronutrient status (vitamins A, C and E, folate) and oxidative stress status in pregnancy with infant growth during the first year of life.
Prospective cohort study.
Outpatient clinic of obstetrics, Ewha Womans University Hospital, Seoul, South Korea.
Subjects and methods
Two groups were constructed for this study – the Ewha pregnancy cohort (n = 677) and the infant growth cohort comprising follow-up live newborns of all the recruited pregnant women (n = 317). Maternal serum vitamin and urinary oxidative stress levels were collected and infant weights and heights were measured at birth and at 6 and 12 months after birth.
Division of the subjects into folate-deficient and normal groups revealed that infant weight and height at 0, 6 and 12 months were adversely affected by folate deficiency. High maternal vitamin C was associated with increased infant weight and height at birth and after birth.
Our findings indicate the importance of preventing folate deficiency and supplementing vitamin C during pregnancy.
By injecting additional argon gas, we were able to grow one-dimensional ZnO nanorod arrays with a uniform distribution on a large scale at a low temperature of less than 330 °C by metalorganic chemical vapor deposition. All of the nanorods grown on the sapphire substrate had a 30° in-plane rotation with respect to the substrate and showed the epitaxial characteristics of [10¯10]ZnO//[11¯20]sapphire, despite the low-temperature growth. These ZnO nanorods with high crystalline quality exhibited a high enhancement factor and low turn-on field value, thus having good potential to be used as a field emitter.
ZnO nanostructures were grown directly on sapphire substrates and GaN epilayers by thermal evaporation. Their morphologies and densities were found to be strongly dependent on the synthesis position and the kinds of substrate loaded into the reactor due to the different oxygen densities and the lattice mismatch, respectively. Scanning electron microscopy and transmission electron microscopy studies revealed that ZnO nanorods on sapphire substrates grew in four directions, one 〈0001〉Sapphire and three (1014)Sapphire directions. It was found that the in-plane lattice mismatch of inclined ZnO nanorods was remarkably reduced by forming the planar relationship of (0002)ZnO//(1014)Sapphire, compared to that of (1120)ZnO//(1010)Sapphire in the ZnO film. On the other hand, for the GaN epilayers, vertically well-aligned ZnO nanorods were grown after growing an epitaxial ZnO film due to reduced lattice mismatch. Electron energy-loss spectroscopy data showed that Zn-rich stoichiometry was responsible for the formation of ZnO nanostructures.
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