To save content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about saving content to .
To save content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about saving to your Kindle.
Note you can select to save to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be saved to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
Remitted psychotic depression (MDDPsy) has heterogeneity of outcome. The study's aims were to identify subgroups of persons with remitted MDDPsy with distinct trajectories of depression severity during continuation treatment and to detect predictors of membership to the worsening trajectory.
One hundred and twenty-six persons aged 18–85 years participated in a 36-week randomized placebo-controlled trial (RCT) that examined the clinical effects of continuing olanzapine once an episode of MDDPsy had remitted with sertraline plus olanzapine. Latent class mixed modeling was used to identify subgroups of participants with distinct trajectories of depression severity during the RCT. Machine learning was used to predict membership to the trajectories based on participant pre-trajectory characteristics.
Seventy-one (56.3%) participants belonged to a subgroup with a stable trajectory of depression scores and 55 (43.7%) belonged to a subgroup with a worsening trajectory. A random forest model with high prediction accuracy (AUC of 0.812) found that the strongest predictors of membership to the worsening subgroup were residual depression symptoms at onset of remission, followed by anxiety score at RCT baseline and age of onset of the first lifetime depressive episode. In a logistic regression model that examined depression score at onset of remission as the only predictor variable, the AUC (0.778) was close to that of the machine learning model.
Residual depression at onset of remission has high accuracy in predicting membership to worsening outcome of remitted MDDPsy. Research is needed to determine how best to optimize the outcome of psychotic MDDPsy with residual symptoms.
Little is known about the relationship between psychomotor disturbance (PMD) and treatment outcome of psychotic depression. This study examined the association between PMD and subsequent remission and relapse of treated psychotic depression.
Two hundred and sixty-nine men and women aged 18–85 years with an episode of psychotic depression were treated with open-label sertraline plus olanzapine for up to 12 weeks. Participants who remained in remission or near-remission following an 8-week stabilization phase were eligible to participate in a 36-week randomized controlled trial (RCT) that compared the efficacy and tolerability of sertraline plus olanzapine (n = 64) with sertraline plus placebo (n = 62). PMD was measured with the psychiatrist-rated sign-based CORE at acute phase baseline and at RCT baseline. Spearman's correlations and logistic regression analyses were used to analyze the association between CORE total score at acute phase baseline and remission/near-remission and CORE total score at RCT baseline and relapse.
Higher CORE total score at acute phase baseline was associated with lower frequency of remission/near-remission. Higher CORE total score at RCT baseline was associated with higher frequency of relapse, in the RCT sample as a whole, as well as in each of the two randomized groups.
PMD is associated with poorer outcome of psychotic depression treated with sertraline plus olanzapine. Future research needs to examine the neurobiology of PMD in psychotic depression in relation to treatment outcome.
Multiple studies have demonstrated that psychotic major depression (MDpsy) occurs more frequently in bipolar than in unipolar depression. Most MDpsy patients receive acute treatment on inpatient services. Management begins with establishing the diagnosis. DSM-IV recognizes that depression may occur during the prodromal, active, and residual phases of schizophrenia, and limits MDpsy to patients whose episodes of psychosis occur exclusively during episodes of major depressive disorder (MDD). An appropriate goal of acute treatment is to achieve both the remission of major depression and the resolution of delusional ideas. Remarkably little systematic data is available to guide continuation treatment to prevent relapses in the 4-6 months following remission and no studies are available on the prevention of recurrences after 6 months. The outcomes of untreated or inadequately treated MDpsy are poor, with high rates of suicide attempts, recurrences, and residual disability.
Treatment studies of delusional major depression demonstrate a poor response to standard antidepressant medications. Longitudinal studies demonstrate high relapse rates, even in patients receiving postdischarge antidepressants. The poor medical and psychiatric outcomes for late-life delusional depression and the increased risk for adverse medication reactions in this population underscore the importance of developing effective postrecovery treatments.
Studies of mixed-age adults demonstrate the effectiveness of acute treatment with either electroconvulsive therapy or combination pharmacotherapy with high doses of neuroleptics and antidepressants. In considering these results in relation to the treatment of late-life delusional depression, attention must be given to the particular vulnerabilities to medication side effects of elderly patients.
The potential effectiveness of continuation treatment with combined antidepressant-neuroleptic therapy is discussed. Clinical and methodologic issues related to studying the effectiveness of combination treatment in elderly patients are emphasized.
Background: We attempted to determine baseline characteristics predicting response in a 6-week, double-blind, geriatric depression trial, which showed a significantly higher remission rate for fluoxetine (20 mg daily) than for placebo (31.6% vs. 18.6%, p < .001). Methods: Outpatients (N = 671) were 60 years or older (mean ± SD = 67.7 ± 5.7), met Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (3rd ed., rev., American Psychiatric Association, 1987) criteria for unipolar major depression, had baseline scores on the 17-item Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HAMD17) of 16 or more, and were randomized after a 1-week placebo lead-in. Potential baseline predictors of percentage change in last-visit-carried-forward HAMD21 total scores were entered into a stepwise regression model. The sample was randomly divided into two groups (development and validation data sets) so that potential predictors could be confirmed in a second analysis. Results: Of the 266 variables considered for their prognostic ability, 13 were found to be significant predictors using the development data set, including (a) presence of somatic complaints, absence of agitation, and presence of previous accidental injury for fluoxetine response: and (b) reported feelings of emptiness, absence of somatic complaints, and absence of early insomnia for placebo response. The second analysis using the validation data set failed to confirm statistical significance of predictors identified in the development data set. Conclusions: Although potentially useful baseline characteristics were initially identified as response predictors, conservative statistical methods failed to confirm any significant predictors of differential responses between fluoxetine and placebo in this double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.
Email your librarian or administrator to recommend adding this to your organisation's collection.