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We implemented universal SARS-CoV-2 testing of patients undergoing surgical procedures as a means to conserve personal protective equipment (PPE). The rate of asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infection was <0.5%, and suggests that early local public health interventions were successful. While our protocol was resource-intensive, it prevented exposures to healthcare team members.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment (‘EXIT’ procedure) is a well described method for maintaining maternal–fetal circulation in the setting of airway obstruction from compressive neck masses. When ex utero intrapartum treatment to airway is not feasible, ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (‘ECMO’) has been described in fetal cardiopulmonary abnormalities.
This paper presents the case of a massively compressive midline neck teratoma managed with ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation, allowing for neonatal survival, with controlled airway management and subsequent resection.
A 34-year-old-female presented with a fetal magnetic resonance imaging scan demonstrating a 15 cm compressive midline neck teratoma. Concern for failure of ex utero intrapartum treatment to airway was high. The addition of the ex utero intrapartum treatment to extracorporeal membrane oxygenation procedure provided time for the planned subsequent resection of the mass and tracheostomy.
Ex utero intrapartum treatment procedures allow for securement of the difficult neonatal airway, while maintaining a supply of oxygenated blood to the newborn. Ex utero intrapartum treatment circulation lasts on average less than 30 minutes. The arrival of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has enabled the survival of neonates with disease processes previously incompatible with life.
“C-K theory”, a theory of reasoning in design, offers a formal modelling language with the power to describe the unfolding of creativity and the generation of new innovative objects as integral parts of design practice. However, the theory has limited ability to analyze and describe the particulars of design practice when the target area is service. To address this question, the purpose of this paper is to refine the “C-K theory” by embedding service relevant constructs and exploring strategies for enhancing the creative engagement resulting in the innovative service concepts.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: We sought to examine: 1) variability in center acceptance patterns for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates, 2) impact of this acceptance behavior on candidate survival, and 3) post-transplantation outcomes in candidates who accepted first rank offer vs. previously declined offer. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: In this retrospective cohort study, the US national transplant registry was queried for all match runs of adult candidates listed for isolated heart transplantation between 2007-2017. We examined center acceptance rates for heart allografts offered to the highest-priority candidates and accounted for covariates in multivariable logistic regression. Competing risks analysis was performed to assess the relationship between center acceptance rate and waitlist mortality. Post-transplantation outcomes (patient survival and graft failure) between candidates who accepted their first-rank offers vs those who accepted previously declined offers were compared using Fine-Gray subdistribution hazards model. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: Among 19,703 unique organ offers, 6,302 (32%) were accepted for first-ranked candidates. After adjustment for donor, recipient, and geographic covariates, transplant centers varied markedly in acceptance rates (12%-62%) of offers made to first-ranked candidates. Lowest acceptance rate centers (<25%) associated with highest cumulative incidence of waitlist mortality. For every 10% increase in adjusted center acceptance rate, waitlist mortality risk decreased by 27% (SHR 0.73, 95% CI 0.67-0.80). No significant difference was observed in 5-year adjusted post-Tx survival and graft failure between hearts accepted at the first-rank vs lower-rank positions. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Wide variability in heart acceptance rates exists among centers, with candidates listed at low acceptance rate centers more likely to die waiting. Similar post-Tx survival suggests previously declined allografts function as well as those accepted at first offer. Center-level decision is a modifiable behavior associated with waitlist mortality.
OBJECTIVES/GOALS: To characterize the oncogenic potential of HNSCC cell lines harboring 17 non-canonical PIK3CA mutations. METHODS/STUDY POPULATION: Non-canonical PIK3CA mutant constructs generated via site-directed mutagenesis are subcloned into doxycycline-inducible vector pLVX-Puro. Serum-dependent HNSCC cell line (PCI-52-SD1) is then stably transfected with vectors and undergo doxycycline-induction. Cell survival is determined by depriving cells of fetal bovine serum for 72 hours and quantifying remaining cells with 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Cell proliferation and migration is evaluated with colony formation assays and transwell assays respectively. RESULTS/ANTICIPATED RESULTS: To date, the survival behavior of eight non-canonical mutants was assessed. Three mutants – Q75E, V71I, and E970K – exhibited 18.7-26.7% greater survival rate relative to cells transfected with wild-type. Five mutants – R519G, Y606C, W328S, C905S, and M1040I – demonstrated survival rates that differed only by −4.3% to +6.6% relative to wild-type. We hypothesize the three activating mutants that exhibited increased survival will also demonstrate increased cell proliferation and migratory behavior whereas the three neutral mutants will not differ from control. DISCUSSION/SIGNIFICANCE OF IMPACT: Ongoing HNSCC PI3K inhibitor trials could be more effective if all PIK3CA hyperactivation mutations are known. Identifying non-canonical mutation effects could result in greater efficacy if drugs are restricted only to those with activating mutations. CONFLICT OF INTEREST DESCRIPTION: JRG and DEJ are co-inventors of cyclic STAT3 decoy and have financial interests in STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. STAT3 Therapeutics, Inc. holds an interest in a cyclic STAT3 decoy oligonucleotide. The remaining authors declare no conflicts.
To evaluate the effect of definitive radiotherapy dose on survival in patients with human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients staged T1–3 and N0–2c, who received definitive radiotherapy (fraction sizes of 180 cGy to less than 220 cGy), were identified from the National Cancer Database 2010–2014 and stratified by radiation dose (50 Gy to less than 66 Gy, or 66 Gy or more).
A total of 2173 patients were included, of whom 124 (6 per cent) received a radiation dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. With a median follow up of 33.8 months, patients had a 3-year overall survival rate of 88.6 per cent (95 per cent confidence interval = 87.1–90.1 per cent). On multivariate Cox analysis, a radiotherapy dose of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy (hazard ratio = 0.95, 95 per cent confidence interval = 0.52–1.74, p = 0.86) was not a predictor of increased mortality risk.
Human papillomavirus positive oropharyngeal carcinoma patients had excellent outcomes with definitive radiotherapy doses of 50 Gy to less than 66 Gy. These results further support patients enrolling into clinical trials for radiation dose de-escalation.
Introduction: Acute bloody diarrhea obligates rapid and accurate diagnostic evaluation; few studies have described such cohorts of children. Methods: We conducted a planned secondary analysis employing the Alberta Provincial Pediatric EnTeric Infection TEam (APPETITE) acute gastroenteritis study cohort to describe the characteristics of children with acute bloody diarrhea, compared to a cohort of children without hematochezia. Children <18 years of age presenting to 2 pediatric tertiary care emergency departments (EDs) in Alberta, with ≥3 episodes of diarrhea and/or vomiting in the preceding 24 hours and <7 days of symptoms were consecutively recruited. Stools were tested for 17 viruses, bacteria and parasites. Primary outcomes were clinical characteristics and pathogens identified. Secondary outcomes included interventions and resource utilization. Results: Of 2257 children enrolled between October 2015 and August 2018, hematochezia before or at the index ED visit was reported in 122 (5.4%). Compared to children with nonbloody diarrhea, children with hematochezia had longer illness duration [59.5 vs. 41.5 hrs, difference 10.6, 95% CI 3.5, 19.9], more diarrheal episodes in a 24-hour period [8 vs. 5, difference 3, 95% CI 2, 4], and less vomiting [55.7% vs. 91.1%; difference -35.3%; 95% CI -44.7, -26.3]. They received more intravenous fluids [32.0% vs. 18.3%; difference 13.7%, 95% CI 5.5, 23.0], underwent non-study stool testing [53.7% vs. 4.8%; difference 49.0%, 95% CI 39.6, 58.0], experienced longer ED visits [4.1 vs. 3.3 hours, difference 0.9, 95% CI 0.3, 1.0] and were more likely to have repeat healthcare visits within 14 days [54.8% vs. 34.2%; difference 20.6%, 95% CI 10.8, 30.1]. A bacterial enteric pathogen was found in 31.9% of children with hematochezia versus 6.6% without bloody diarrhea (difference 25.4%, 95% CI 17.2, 34.7). In children with hematochezia, the most commonly detected bacteria were Salmonella spp. (N = 15), Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (N = 9), Campylobacter spp. (N = 7), and Shigella spp. (N = 5). Viruses were detected in 32.8% of children with bloody diarrhea, most commonly adenovirus (N = 15), norovirus (N = 14), sapovirus (N = 8) and rotavirus (N = 7). Conclusion: Children with hematochezia differed clinically from those without hematochezia and required more healthcare resources. While bacterial etiologies are common, several viruses were also detected.
Introduction: Extracorporeal cardiopulmonary resuscitation (ECPR) is a rapidly evolving technology for clinical use in patients with refractory cardiogenic arrest. Out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is a common cause of unexpected death and has a low survival rate. There is increasing evidence that suggests better outcomes for (OHCA) patients, including improved neurological outcomes and survival rates, who are started on extracorporeal corporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) versus traditional resuscitation methods. Methods: We conducted a retrospective chart review of 200 out-of-hospital cardiac arrest patients presenting to Regina emergency departments from January 1, 2017 to March 31, 2019. Eligibility for ECPR was assessed using different clinical criteria from different ECPR programs (University of British Columbia, University of Michigan, and a hypothetical “Regina” criteria created for this study). Outcomes of the eligible patients were compared using descriptive statistics with SPSS version 22. Results: Between four different criteria, 15%, 9.5%, 7.5%, and 3.5% of patients were respectively eligible to receive ECPR. Of patients who met eligibility for all four criteria, 80% were male, the average age was 61 years old, the average Cerebral Performance score was 4.46, and 83% died in hospital. There was a low survival rate of eligible patients, with rates of 16%, 17%, 20%, and 28% in each group. The survival rate for all patients was 21% and the average CPC score was 4.35. Conclusion: The significant percentage of patients were eligible for ECPR upon presentation to Regina Emergency Departments. Patients who were eligible had low survival rates and poor neurological outcomes, suggesting that ECPR could prove to be a valuable clinical tool that could improve patient outcomes in Saskatchewan. There were considerable differences in patient eligibility percentages based on different criterion. Differences in inclusion/exclusion criteria, modifying the expected annual number of ECPR eligible OHCA patients, could provide valuable information on required resources and planning for implementation of an ECPR program in a smaller centre, such as Regina.
Most available data about psychiatric mortality and invalidity concerns inpatients, although the majority of patients are treated as outpatients only.
It was the aim of this study to estimate the effect of anxiety disorders on early retirement and premature death in the working population with special emphasis on outpatients.
125.019 workes between age 16 and 58 were followed for an average of 6.4 years. Excess risks of death and permanent disability were calculated with multivariate Cox regression models.
Outpatient and inpatient treatment for anxiety disorders (OR 1.40 resp. OR 2.10) were associated with higher risks of early retirement. Males generally were more often affected by this bad outcome than females.
Further analysis showed decreased risks of premature death for outpatients with an anxiety disorder (OR 0.33). The effect tended to be most prominent during the middle decades of life and got smaller with older age, at which all-cause mortality approximated that of the control group. No significant effect on mortality could be shown for inpatients.
Patients with outpatient treatment for anxiety disorders have an elevated risk of permanent disability early in life, while all-cause mortality is lower. This beneficial effect can only be partly explained by different risk-taking behaviors. Different causes of death early in life and their connections with these disorders need to be discussed, too. Treatment should have a strong focus on preserving ability to work.
Absenteeism from work and inpatient treatment are well defined events in the course of any illness and may be indicators for the need of an intervention. The aim of this study was to estimate of the influence of these events on later permanent disability and death in a working population when caused by anxiety and/or depression.
Data of 128,001 members of a health insurance with a observation period of 6.4 years were used. Excess risks were calculated for patients suffering from anxiety, depression or both using Cox's proportional hazard models adjusted for age, gender, education and job classification.
Patients who received outpatient treatment had higher rates of permanent disability (hazard ratio (HR) 1.48 (Confidence interval 1.30, 1.69) for depression, 1.25 (1.07, 1.45) for anxiety) but lower premature mortality (HR 0.80(0.62, 1.03), 0.53(0.38, 0.73)) than controls. Inpatient treatment and co-morbidity were associated with further raised rates of permanent disability. Depressed inpatients also had higher premature mortality (HR 2.50(1.80, 3.48)).
The study shows a dose-responsive relationship between depression, anxiety, comorbidity and need for hospital treatment. It was was unexpected that some exposures seem to reduce mortality risk. Life style may partly explain this effect. However, these patients are subject to many other exposures, into which more research is needed to get a better understanding of the phenomenon.
The aim of this study was to evaluate theprevalence of night eating syndrome (NES) and its correlates in schizophrenicoutpatients.
The 14 items of self-reported night eatingquestionnaire (NEQ) was administered to 201 schizophrenic patients in psychiatricoutpatient clinic. We examined demographic and clinical characteristics, bodymass index (BMI), subjective measures of mood, sleep, binge eating, andweight-related quality of life using Beck's Depression Inventory (BDI),Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index (PSQI), Binge Eating Scale (BES) and Koreanversion of Obesity-Related Quality of Life Scale (KOQoL), respectively.
The prevalence of night eaters in schizophrenicoutpatients was 10.4% (21 of 201). Comparisons between NES group and non-NES grouprevealed no significant differences in sociodemographic characteristics, clinical status and BMI. Compared to non-NES, patients with NES reportedsignificantly greater depressed mood and sleep disturbance, more binge eatingpattern, and decreased weight-related quality of life. While 'morning anorexia'and 'delayed morning meal' (2 of 5 NES core components in NEQ) were notdiffered between groups, 'nocturnal ingestions', 'evening hyperphagia', and'mood/sleep' were more impaired in NES group.
These findings are the first to describe theprevalence and its correlates of night eaters in schizophrenic outpatients. These results suggest that NES has negative mental health implications, although it was not associated with obesity. Further study to generalize theseresults is required.
There have been many changes in the treatment of bipolar disorder.
It is necessary to develop guidelines that can more aptly respond to cultural issues and specifics in different countries.
The Korean Medication Algorithm for Bipolar Disorder (KMAP-BP) was firstly published in 2002, with updates in 2006 and 2010. This third update reviewed the experts' consensus of opinion on the pharmacological treatments of bipolar disorder.
The newly revised questionnaire composed of 55 key questions about clinical situations including 223 sub-items was sent to the experts.
Combination of mood stabilizer (MS) and atypical antipsychotic (AAP) was the first-line treatment option in acute mania. For the management of severe psychotic bipolar depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of AAP and LTG, combination of MS, AAP and AD or LTG, combination of AAP and AD, and combination of AAP, AD and LTG was the first-line treatments. Combination of MS and AAP was the treatment of choice for management of mixed features. Combination of MS and AAP, MS or AAP monotherapy was the first-line options for management of maintenance phase after manic episode. For maintenance treatment after bipolar I depression, combination of MS and AAP, combination of MS and LTG, combination of AAP and LTG, MS or LTG monotherapy, and combination of MS, AAP and LTG were the first-line options.
Despite the limitations of expert consensus guideline, KMAP-BP 2014 may reflect the current patterns of clinical practice and recent researches.
This cross-sectional study was aimed to investigate the factors associated with bipolar disorder in pregnant female, including sociodemographic parameters, social support, social conflict, suicidal idea and sleep.
A total of 84 pregnant female were recruited. They filled out self-completing questionnaires on sociodemographic factors, obstetric history, depressive symptoms and bipolarity. Depressive symptoms were assessed using the Korean version of the Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS). Bipolarity was assessed using the Korean version of the Mood Disorder Questionnaire (K-MDQ).
Nineteen participants (22.6%) had positive K-MDQ scores, suggesting the present of bipolarity. Positive EPDS group had twenty subjects (25%) who had depressive symptoms. The diathesis of bipolar disorder was associated with marital dissatisfaction, social conflict, depression and sleep. The multiple logistic regression analysis revealed that the only poor sleep was a risk of bipolarity.
Pregnant female with bipolarity were more depressed and sleep problems than those without bipolarity. The results showed that the most important factor of influencing bipolarity was sleep.
This study aimed to explore thedifference in emotional recognition of musical auditory stimulation and artfulvisual stimulation between helathy people and patients with schizophrenia.
20 songs and 20 paintings thatcontained sad or cheerful emotions were presented to 123 patients withschizophrenia and 224 healthy people as control group. The subjects were askedto tell about their emotions that they had felt from each musical auditorystimulation and artful visual stimulation. To measure such emotions, the Emotional Empathy Scale was used. The level of psychopathology in patientsgroup were evaluated with the Positive and Negative Syndrome Scale and the Formal Thought Disorder Rating Scale.
The correct answer rate to musical auditoryand artful visual stimulation of the patient group was significantly lower than that of thecontrol group. Thepatient group showed lower emotional empathic ability compared to the controlgroup. In the patient group, the correct answer rate to musical and artfulstimulation showed a negative correlation with score with Formal ThoughtDisorder Rating Scale.
Patients with schizophrenia have difficulties inprecise emotional recognition to auditory and visual stimulations, and this isassociated with lowered empathic ability and thinking disorder of patients withschizophrenia. If an psychosocial rehabilitation program or psychotherapy isimplemented to patients with schizophrenia, it is deemed to be necessary to make a mediation to improve the emotional recognition and expression ability of patients with schizophrenia.