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The diagnostic interview for social and communication disorders (DISCO – 11; Wing 2006), is a semi-structured, interview-based instrument used in the diagnosis of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This paper explores the psychometric properties of the DISCO-11 used in a specialist Paediatric clinical setting. Two key research questions were examined; (1) Does the factor structure of the DISCO-11 reflect the diagnostic and statistical manual 5th edition (DSM-5, American Psychiatric Association [APA], 2013) dyad of impairment in ASD? (2) Is there evidence of diagnostic stability over time using the DISCO?
Review assessments of 65 children with ASD were carried out using standardised measures including the DISCO-11 and the autism diagnostic observation schedule.
The results revealed two factors resembling the DSM-5 algorithms, as used in DISCO-11, which were named as social-communication, and restricted and repetitive behaviours. The reliability, for the overall DISCO score was good (Cronbach’s alpha = 0.78). The social communication and social interaction subscale showed good reliability (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.77) as did the restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities subscale (Cronbach’s Alpha = 0.74). Acceptable internal reliability was found for the overall DISCO score and the subscales of social communication and social interaction and the restricted and repetitive patterns of behaviour, interests or activities. Test–retest showed good stability of diagnosis over time.
This study supports that the DISCO-11 shows potential as a valid and reliable instrument that can be used both for clinical and research purposes.
The law and policy applicable to the not-for-profit sector is of growing importance around the world. In this book, legal experts address fundamental questions about not-for-profit law from a range of theoretical and comparative perspectives. The essays provide scholarly analysis of not-for-profit law, organised around four themes: (1) Politics, in the broader sense of living as a community, and the narrower sense of political power; (2) Charity, how it is defined and changes in its meaning over time; (3) Taxation, including the rationale for government support of the sector through the tax system; (4) Regulation, which is of increasing significance as governments establish increasingly complex forms of regulation of not-for-profit activity. The fundamental aim of the book is to deepen our understanding of not-for-profit law and of the rationales and modes of government support for the not-for-profit sector.
This chapter examines a necessarily select list of Article 14 (the prohibition of discrimination) jurisprudence involving ethnic minorities, most notably the Roma minority in post-Communist countries before the European Court of Human Rights (the Court). The aim is to identify to what extent, if any, have the cases informed the transition processes. The chapter focuses on the Roma because the Roma form a ‘special minority group’ as they have a ‘double minority status’: ‘They are an ethnic community and most of them belong to the socially disadvantaged groups of society.’ While this double discrimination exists throughout Europe, there are particular difficulties during transition processes. First, the end of the Communist regimes raised the spectre of ‘old problems of ethno-nationalism … challenging the authority of central governments, threatening the break up of the nation state, raising tensions between neighbouring states and leading to intra- and inter-state conflict’. This prompted the Council of Europe to become more concerned with minorities, adopting treaties on minorities and minority languages. Second, many Communist countries adopted a policy of assimilation towards the Roma. While not unique in the Communist states, it was ‘most evident’ in them. Third, the Communist regimes provided a level of social and economic security which could not be guaranteed after the transition to a market economy. For the Roma this transition has been difficult and has sometimes meant that they had to migrate to poorer parts of the countries or the cities. Fourth, despite providing some social and economic benefits for Roma, the Communist states tended to sideline them into less skilled labour roles which were not sustainable in a market regime. Fifth, societies emerging from decades of Communism naturally focus on the groups that are relevant to context specific problem, such as a conflict or a history of authoritarian rule. A transition process addressing such problems may focus on specific groups and neglect the interests of other minorities.