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To delineate the timing of, indications for, and assessment of visitor restriction policies and practices (VRPP) in pediatric facilities.
An electronic survey to characterize VRPP in pediatric healthcare facilities.
The Infectious Diseases Society of America Emerging Infections Network surveyed 334 pediatric infectious disease consultants via an electronic link. Descriptive analyses were performed.
A total of 170 eligible respondents completed a survey between 12 July and August 15, 2016, for a 51% response rate. Of the 104 respondents (61%) familiar with their VRPP, 92 (88%) had VRPP in all inpatient units. The respondents reported age-based VRPP (74%) symptom-based VRPP (97%), and outbreak-specific VRPP (75%). Symptom-based VRPP were reported to be seasonal by 24% of respondents and to be implemented year-round according to 70% of respondents. According to the respondents, communication of VRPP to families occurred at admission (87%) and through signage in care areas (64%), while communication of VRPP to staff occurred by email (77%), by meetings (55%), and by signage in staff-only areas (49%). Respondents reported that enforcement of VRPP was the responsibility of nursing (80%), registration clerks (58%), unit clerks (53%), the infection prevention team (31%), or clinicians 16 (16%). They also reported that the effectiveness of VRPP was assessed through active surveillance of hospital acquired respiratory infections (62%), through active surveillance of healthcare worker exposures (28%) and through patient/family satisfaction assessments (29%).
Visitor restriction policies and practices vary in scope, implementation, enforcement, and physician awareness in pediatric facilities. A prospective multisite evaluation of outcomes would facilitate the adoption of uniform guidance.
Whether contact precautions (CP) are required to control the endemic transmission of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) or vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus (VRE) in acute care hospitals is controversial in light of improvements in hand hygiene, MRSA decolonization, environmental cleaning and disinfection, fomite elimination, and chlorhexidine bathing.
To provide a framework for decision making around use of CP for endemic MRSA and VRE based on a summary of evidence related to use of CP, including impact on patients and patient care processes, and current practices in use of CP for MRSA and VRE in US hospitals.
A literature review, a survey of Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America Research Network members on use of CP, and a detailed examination of the experience of a convenience sample of hospitals not using CP for MRSA or VRE.
Hospital epidemiologists and infection prevention experts.
No high quality data support or reject use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE. Our survey found more than 90% of responding hospitals currently use CP for MRSA and VRE, but approximately 60% are interested in using CP in a different manner. More than 30 US hospitals do not use CP for control of endemic MRSA or VRE.
Higher quality research on the benefits and harms of CP in the control of endemic MRSA and VRE is needed. Until more definitive data are available, the use of CP for endemic MRSA or VRE in acute care hospitals should be guided by local needs and resources.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2015;36(10):1163–1172
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