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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-encoding RNAs that actively regulate biological and physiological processes, and play an important role in regulating gene expression in all cells, especially in most animal cells, including oocytes and embryos. The expression of miRNAs at the right time and place is crucial for the oocyte’s maturation and the embryo’s subsequent development. Although assisted reproductive techniques (ART) have helped to solve many infertility problems, they cause changes in the expression of miRNA and genes in oocytes and preimplantation embryos, and the effect of these changes on the future of offspring is unknown, and has caused concerns. The relevant genomic alterations commonly imposed on embryos during cryopreservation may have potential epigenetic risks. Understanding the biological functions of miRNAs in frozen maturated oocytes may provide a better understanding of embryonic development and a comparison of fertility conservation in female mammals. With the development of new techniques for genomic evaluation of preimplantation embryos, it has been possible to better understand the effects of ART. The results of various articles have shown that freezing of oocytes and the cryopreservation method are effective for the expression of miRNAs and, in some cases, cause changes in the expression of miRNAs and epigenetic changes in the resulting embryo. This literature review study aimed to investigate the effects of oocyte cryopreservation in both pre-maturation and post-maturation stages, the cryopreservation method and the type of cryoprotectants (CPA) used on the expression of some epigenetic-related genes and miRNAs.
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