As evident in the previous two chapters, the understanding of psychopathology and its associated neuropsychological deficits across the lifespan is complicated by the uneven investigation of pediatric and adult disorders [1, 2]. In particular, as Sivan  emphasizes, while select disorders that impact developmental functioning are considered in the pediatric neuropsychology literature (i.e. the comorbidity of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) with other mood and behavioral disorders ; also see Marks et al. and Halperin et al., this volume), examination of mood disorders and other forms of developmental psychopathology, and their associated neuropsychological markers, is less frequent. This has led to these disorders being less clearly understood with regard to their neuropsychological profiles and impact across childhood. At the same time, this situation contrasts significantly with our understanding of adult psychopathology. Schizophrenia, bipolar disorder, and the depressive disorders, among other psychopathologies, have been extensively examined with regard to their neurocognitive impact; and in the case of schizophrenia in particular, well characterized as a neuropsychological disorder.
There is evidence that this situation is changing with regard to developmental psychopathology. There have been an increased number of recent studies published that have examined the neurocognitive and behavioral markers of such mood and regulatory disorders that occur during childhood as pediatric bipolar disorder [3, 4].