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We analyzed clinical microbiology laboratory practices for detection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in US short-stay acute-care hospitals using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Annual Facility Survey. Half of hospitals reported testing for carbapenemases, and 1% performed routine polymyxin susceptibility testing using reference broth microdilution.
To describe antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred in 2011–2014 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network.
Data from central line–associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonias, and surgical site infections were analyzed. These HAIs were reported from acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Pooled mean proportions of pathogens that tested resistant (or nonsusceptible) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by year and HAI type.
Overall, 4,515 hospitals reported that at least 1 HAI occurred in 2011–2014. There were 408,151 pathogens from 365,490 HAIs reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network, most of which were reported from acute care hospitals with greater than 200 beds. Fifteen pathogen groups accounted for 87% of reported pathogens; the most common included Escherichia coli (15%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), Klebsiella species (8%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8%). In general, the proportion of isolates with common resistance phenotypes was higher among device-associated HAIs compared with surgical site infections. Although the percent resistance for most phenotypes was similar to earlier reports, an increase in the magnitude of the resistance percentages among E. coli pathogens was noted, especially related to fluoroquinolone resistance.
This report represents a national summary of antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and phenotypes. The distribution of frequent pathogens and some resistance patterns appear to have changed from 2009–2010, highlighting the need for continual, careful monitoring of these data across the spectrum of HAI types.
We examined reported policies for the control of common multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in US healthcare facilities using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Facility Survey. Policies for the use of Contact Precautions were commonly reported. Chlorhexidine bathing for preventing MDRO transmission was also common among acute care hospitals.
Potatoes are an important global food crop typically produced in high-input systems in temperate zones. Growers that have access to compost may use it to improve soil health and increase tuber yields, but compost may also increase weed competition by increasing early-season water availability and weed growth. A field study at the Michigan State University Montcalm Research farm in 2010 and 2011 investigated the impact of compost on weed competition in potato. Potatoes were grown in field plots with 0, 4,000, or 8,000 kg carbon (C) ha−1 of compost under weed-free conditions, and in competition with common lambsquarters, giant foxtail, and hairy nightshade. Compost did not increase biomass or seed production of any weed species. Giant foxtail and hairy nightshade at 5.3 plants per meter of row reduced potato yield by 20%; common lambsquarters reduced yield by 45%. The yield reduction by giant foxtail and hairy nightshade was due to a decrease in tuber bulking, whereas yield reductions from common lambsquarters were a result of lower tuber set and bulking. Potato yield increased 5 to 15% in compost compared to non-compost treatments; tuber specific gravity decreased by 0.3% in composted treatments. Across weed densities, elevated soil potassium levels in the 8,000 kg C ha−1 composted treatment may have increased potato yield and decreased tuber specific gravity.
Studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions at Michigan State University and Texas Tech University to investigate the tolerance of Miscanthus × giganteus and Miscanthus sinensis to POST herbicides. Miscanthus sinensis and M. × giganteus were treated with 10 and 18 POST herbicide treatments, respectively. Plants were evaluated for injury as well as dry aboveground and belowground biomass production 28 days after treatment. Imazethapyr at 0.069 kg ai ha−1 caused 5% injury to M. sinensis, which was greater than the nontreated check. Imazethapyr, imazamox at 0.044 kg ai ha−1, and rimsulfuron at 0.017 kg ai ha−1 reduced aboveground biomass of M. sinensis compared with the nontreated check. Dicamba at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 and halosulfuron at 0.035 kg ai ha−1 resulted in M. sinensis aboveground biomass similar to the nontreated check. Injury exhibited by M. × giganteus was greater than the nontreated check with glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 (54%), foramsulfuron at 0.037 kg ai ha−1 (32%), nicosulfuron at 0.035 kg ai ha−1 (28%), and imazamox at 0.044 kg ai ha−1 (10%). These treatments also yielded the lowest aboveground biomass values. The results of this study demonstrate that M. sinensis is more tolerant of the POST herbicides tested here than M.×x. giganteus. Several herbicide options may be available for weed management in M. sinensis and M. × giganteus stands following additional field trials to validate initial findings.
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