Potatoes are an important global food crop typically produced in high-input systems in temperate zones. Growers that have access to compost may use it to improve soil health and increase tuber yields, but compost may also increase weed competition by increasing early-season water availability and weed growth. A field study at the Michigan State University Montcalm Research farm in 2010 and 2011 investigated the impact of compost on weed competition in potato. Potatoes were grown in field plots with 0, 4,000, or 8,000 kg carbon (C) ha−1 of compost under weed-free conditions, and in competition with common lambsquarters, giant foxtail, and hairy nightshade. Compost did not increase biomass or seed production of any weed species. Giant foxtail and hairy nightshade at 5.3 plants per meter of row reduced potato yield by 20%; common lambsquarters reduced yield by 45%. The yield reduction by giant foxtail and hairy nightshade was due to a decrease in tuber bulking, whereas yield reductions from common lambsquarters were a result of lower tuber set and bulking. Potato yield increased 5 to 15% in compost compared to non-compost treatments; tuber specific gravity decreased by 0.3% in composted treatments. Across weed densities, elevated soil potassium levels in the 8,000 kg C ha−1 composted treatment may have increased potato yield and decreased tuber specific gravity.