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Growers have been experimenting with cover crop termination timings to maximize weed suppression and potentially reduce herbicide inputs in soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.]. A field study was replicated three times from 2018 through 2021 in South Charleston, OH, to evaluate different management strategies involving a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop. The objectives were to determine the effects of cereal rye seeding rate (0, 50, and 100 kg ha−1), management program (preplant, postplant, and delayed), and soybean residual herbicide (flumioxazin + chlorimuron ethyl and no herbicide) on cover crop, weed, and soybean parameters. The preplant program consisted of cereal rye terminated 7 d before planting (DBP) + a postemergence application. The postplant program consisted of cereal rye terminated 7 d after planting (DAP) + a postemergence application. In the delayed program, saflufenacil was applied in April and cereal rye was terminated 21 DAP, and there was no postemergence application. Giant foxtail (Setaria faberi Herrm.) density was reduced by the presence of cereal rye, averaged over other factors, regardless of seeding rate. Cereal rye seeding rate did not affect giant ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.) density. The delayed management program was generally associated with the lowest weed density, but weed density was often similar in the postplant program. Setaria faberi density was lower in treatments that included a residual herbicide. Residual soybean herbicide use did not affect density of A. trifida. Terminating cereal rye after soybean planting resulted in increased soybean yield in 2019 and reduced yield in 2020, compared with preplant rye termination. These data suggest that adjusting the cereal rye management program may have a greater effect on weed suppression than adjustments to seeding rate. Delaying termination of cereal rye can aid in the suppression of weeds, but a comprehensive herbicide program was necessary to provide adequate (>85%) weed control.
On-site surveys of weed populations provide information on the relative occurrence and density of weeds that can be useful to growers in that region. Data generated by weed surveys can aid in the management of weed issues by monitoring the movement of problem weeds and forecasting areas susceptible to infestations. Currently, on-site surveys are often performed on a small scale, within single fields or counties. Questionnaire surveys are helpful for assessing relative abundance but do not always provide detailed information on weed distribution in time or space. A survey was conducted annually in Ohio from 2013 through 2017 in 49 counties with soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] production to assess the late-season occurrence of horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist]. The objectives of this research were to: (1) determine the frequency, level of infestation, and distribution of C. canadensis in soybean fields in the primary soybean-producing Ohio counties over 5 yr; and (2) identify significant spatial clusters or movement trends over time. Conyza canadensis was encountered in each county from 2013 through 2017. Spatial cores of interest, or counties identified as having significant levels of C. canadensis infestations or a lack thereof relative to surrounding counties, were identified in all years except 2017. The lowest frequency of C. canadensis encountered at all rating levels occurred in 2017, which coincided with second-highest frequency of infestations (highest density level) among years. There was no distinct distribution or pattern of C. canadensis movement within the state from year to year, but there was an increase in counties with infestations over time compared with the early years of the survey when many counties had few to no infestations. These results suggest that C. canadensis persists as a common and troublesome threat to Ohio soybean producers and that growers should continue making C. canadensis management a priority when developing weed control programs.
Current recommendations for the control of glyphosate-resistant horseweed [Conyza canadensis (L.) Cronquist var. canadensis] in soybeans [Glycine max (L.) Merr.] consist of comprehensive herbicide programs, which often include herbicide applications outside the soybean growing season. Integration of cover crops with herbicides could potentially improve C. canadensis control and allow for a reduction in herbicide inputs. Two separate field studies were conducted from 2016 through 2018 with the objectives of: (1) determining the effect of planting date and seeding rate of a cereal rye (Secale cereale L.) cover crop on C. canadensis population density and control in the subsequent soybean crop; and (2) determining whether the cover crop could replace a fall herbicide treatment or allow for a reduction in the use of spring-applied residual herbicides. There was no effect of rye planting date, late September versus late October, on C. canadensis density in either study. In 2016 to 2017, C. canadensis density was greater in the absence of a rye cover crop in both studies, but otherwise not affected by seeding rates of 50 versus 100 kg ha−1. In the 2017 to 2018 season, the presence of rye resulted in an increased C. canadensis density in the spring residual herbicide study (Study I), and had no effect in the fall herbicide study (Study II). Conyza canadensis densities were lowest in the treatments where a comprehensive spring residual or fall herbicide treatment had been applied, averaged over rye planting date and seeding rate. Earlier-planted rye at a higher seeding rate produced the most biomass but did not result in lower C. canadensis densities. These results suggest that cereal rye planted at a density of 50 kg ha−1 as a cover crop before no-till soybeans may be sufficient to reduce glyphosate-resistant C. canadensis plant density, but cannot be relied upon to reduce the need for fall herbicide treatments and spring residual programs.
Describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred during 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s (CDC’s) National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Data from central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated events (VAEs), and surgical site infections (SSIs) were reported from acute-care hospitals, long-term acute-care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. This analysis included device-associated HAIs reported from adult location types, and SSIs among patients ≥18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated for each HAI type, location type, surgical category, and surgical wound closure technique.
Overall, 5,626 facilities performed adult HAI surveillance during this period, most of which were general acute-care hospitals with <200 beds. Escherichia coli (18%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), and Klebsiella spp (9%) were the 3 most frequently reported pathogens. Pathogens varied by HAI and location type, with oncology units having a distinct pathogen distribution compared to other settings. The %NS for most pathogens was significantly higher among device-associated HAIs than SSIs. In addition, pathogens from long-term acute-care hospitals had a significantly higher %NS than those from general hospital wards.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and pathogens, stratified by several factors. These data underscore the importance of tracking antimicrobial resistance, particularly in vulnerable populations such as long-term acute-care hospitals and intensive care units.
To describe common pathogens and antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) among pediatric patients that occurred in 2015–2017 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN).
Antimicrobial resistance data were analyzed for pathogens implicated in central line-associated bloodstream infections (CLABSIs), catheter-associated urinary tract infections (CAUTIs), ventilator-associated pneumonias (VAPs), and surgical site infections (SSIs). This analysis was restricted to device-associated HAIs reported from pediatric patient care locations and SSIs among patients <18 years old. Percentages of pathogens with nonsusceptibility (%NS) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by HAI type, location type, and surgical category.
Overall, 2,545 facilities performed surveillance of pediatric HAIs in the NHSN during this period. Staphylococcus aureus (15%), Escherichia coli (12%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (12%) were the 3 most commonly reported pathogens associated with pediatric HAIs. Pathogens and the %NS varied by HAI type, location type, and/or surgical category. Among CLABSIs, the %NS was generally lowest in neonatal intensive care units and highest in pediatric oncology units. Staphylococcus spp were particularly common among orthopedic, neurosurgical, and cardiac SSIs; however, E. coli was more common in abdominal SSIs. Overall, antimicrobial nonsusceptibility was less prevalent in pediatric HAIs than in adult HAIs.
This report provides an updated national summary of pathogen distributions and antimicrobial resistance patterns among pediatric HAIs. These data highlight the need for continued antimicrobial resistance tracking among pediatric patients and should encourage the pediatric healthcare community to use such data when establishing policies for infection prevention and antimicrobial stewardship.
We analyzed clinical microbiology laboratory practices for detection of multidrug-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in US short-stay acute-care hospitals using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network (NHSN) Annual Facility Survey. Half of hospitals reported testing for carbapenemases, and 1% performed routine polymyxin susceptibility testing using reference broth microdilution.
Potatoes are an important global food crop typically produced in high-input systems in temperate zones. Growers that have access to compost may use it to improve soil health and increase tuber yields, but compost may also increase weed competition by increasing early-season water availability and weed growth. A field study at the Michigan State University Montcalm Research farm in 2010 and 2011 investigated the impact of compost on weed competition in potato. Potatoes were grown in field plots with 0, 4,000, or 8,000 kg carbon (C) ha−1 of compost under weed-free conditions, and in competition with common lambsquarters, giant foxtail, and hairy nightshade. Compost did not increase biomass or seed production of any weed species. Giant foxtail and hairy nightshade at 5.3 plants per meter of row reduced potato yield by 20%; common lambsquarters reduced yield by 45%. The yield reduction by giant foxtail and hairy nightshade was due to a decrease in tuber bulking, whereas yield reductions from common lambsquarters were a result of lower tuber set and bulking. Potato yield increased 5 to 15% in compost compared to non-compost treatments; tuber specific gravity decreased by 0.3% in composted treatments. Across weed densities, elevated soil potassium levels in the 8,000 kg C ha−1 composted treatment may have increased potato yield and decreased tuber specific gravity.
Studies were conducted under greenhouse conditions at Michigan State University and Texas Tech University to investigate the tolerance of Miscanthus × giganteus and Miscanthus sinensis to POST herbicides. Miscanthus sinensis and M. × giganteus were treated with 10 and 18 POST herbicide treatments, respectively. Plants were evaluated for injury as well as dry aboveground and belowground biomass production 28 days after treatment. Imazethapyr at 0.069 kg ai ha−1 caused 5% injury to M. sinensis, which was greater than the nontreated check. Imazethapyr, imazamox at 0.044 kg ai ha−1, and rimsulfuron at 0.017 kg ai ha−1 reduced aboveground biomass of M. sinensis compared with the nontreated check. Dicamba at 0.56 kg ai ha−1 and halosulfuron at 0.035 kg ai ha−1 resulted in M. sinensis aboveground biomass similar to the nontreated check. Injury exhibited by M. × giganteus was greater than the nontreated check with glyphosate at 0.84 kg ae ha−1 (54%), foramsulfuron at 0.037 kg ai ha−1 (32%), nicosulfuron at 0.035 kg ai ha−1 (28%), and imazamox at 0.044 kg ai ha−1 (10%). These treatments also yielded the lowest aboveground biomass values. The results of this study demonstrate that M. sinensis is more tolerant of the POST herbicides tested here than M.×x. giganteus. Several herbicide options may be available for weed management in M. sinensis and M. × giganteus stands following additional field trials to validate initial findings.
To describe antimicrobial resistance patterns for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) that occurred in 2011–2014 and were reported to the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Healthcare Safety Network.
Data from central line–associated bloodstream infections, catheter-associated urinary tract infections, ventilator-associated pneumonias, and surgical site infections were analyzed. These HAIs were reported from acute care hospitals, long-term acute care hospitals, and inpatient rehabilitation facilities. Pooled mean proportions of pathogens that tested resistant (or nonsusceptible) to selected antimicrobials were calculated by year and HAI type.
Overall, 4,515 hospitals reported that at least 1 HAI occurred in 2011–2014. There were 408,151 pathogens from 365,490 HAIs reported to the National Healthcare Safety Network, most of which were reported from acute care hospitals with greater than 200 beds. Fifteen pathogen groups accounted for 87% of reported pathogens; the most common included Escherichia coli (15%), Staphylococcus aureus (12%), Klebsiella species (8%), and coagulase-negative staphylococci (8%). In general, the proportion of isolates with common resistance phenotypes was higher among device-associated HAIs compared with surgical site infections. Although the percent resistance for most phenotypes was similar to earlier reports, an increase in the magnitude of the resistance percentages among E. coli pathogens was noted, especially related to fluoroquinolone resistance.
This report represents a national summary of antimicrobial resistance among select HAIs and phenotypes. The distribution of frequent pathogens and some resistance patterns appear to have changed from 2009–2010, highlighting the need for continual, careful monitoring of these data across the spectrum of HAI types.
We examined reported policies for the control of common multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs) in US healthcare facilities using data from the National Healthcare Safety Network Annual Facility Survey. Policies for the use of Contact Precautions were commonly reported. Chlorhexidine bathing for preventing MDRO transmission was also common among acute care hospitals.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol 2016:1–4
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