To send content items to your account,
please confirm that you agree to abide by our usage policies.
If this is the first time you use this feature, you will be asked to authorise Cambridge Core to connect with your account.
Find out more about sending content to .
To send content items to your Kindle, first ensure firstname.lastname@example.org
is added to your Approved Personal Document E-mail List under your Personal Document Settings
on the Manage Your Content and Devices page of your Amazon account. Then enter the ‘name’ part
of your Kindle email address below.
Find out more about sending to your Kindle.
Note you can select to send to either the @free.kindle.com or @kindle.com variations.
‘@free.kindle.com’ emails are free but can only be sent to your device when it is connected to wi-fi.
‘@kindle.com’ emails can be delivered even when you are not connected to wi-fi, but note that service fees apply.
A significant advance in the clinical characterization of vascular dementia (VaD) occurred in the 1970s when V. Hachinski described the term multi-infarct dementia (MID). A number of factors have contributed to difficulty in the development and implementation of diagnostic criteria for VaD. All diagnostic criteria have focused on the two most important issues in VaD: the presence of dementia, and the presence of vascular disease of sufficient severity to cause cognitive deficits. However, there is a great variability in their approach to these two core issues. The most difficult aspect in the diagnosis of VaD is to separate the presence of an ongoing neurodegenerative disease from true VaD. Constitutional and cerebrovascular risk factors and previous strokes have been associated with the presence of VaD. Therefore, detailed clinical, laboratory, neuroimaging, and neuropsychological assessments are necessary for the accurate diagnosis of VaD.