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Working within a series of partnerships among an academic health center, local health departments (LHDs), and faith-based organizations (FBOs), we validated companion interventions to address community mental health planning and response challenges in public health emergency preparedness.
We implemented the project within the framework of an enhanced logic model and employed a multi-cohort, pre-test/post-test design to assess the outcomes of 1-day workshops in psychological first aid (PFA) and guided preparedness planning (GPP). The workshops were delivered to urban and rural communities in eastern and midwestern regions of the United States. Intervention effectiveness was based on changes in relevant knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) and on several behavioral indexes.
Significant improvements were observed in self-reported and objectively measured KSAs across all cohorts. Additionally, GPP teams proved capable of producing quality drafts of basic community disaster plans in 1 day, and PFA trainees confirmed upon follow-up that their training proved useful in real-world trauma contexts. We documented examples of policy and practice changes at the levels of local and state health departments.
Given appropriate guidance, LHDs and FBOs can implement an effective and potentially scalable model for promoting disaster mental health preparedness and community resilience, with implications for positive translational impact.(Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;8:511-526)
Changes in corpus callosum area and thickness have been reported in
bipolar disorder. Imaging and limited neuropathological data suggest
possible abnormalities in myelination and/or glial function.
To compare corpus callosum area, thickness and magnetic resonance imaging
(MRI) T1 signal intensity in patients with bipolar disorder and
A total of 48 patients with euthymic bipolar disorder and 46 healthy
controls underwent MRI analysis of callosal midsagittal area, callosal
thickness and T1 signal intensity.
The bipolar group had smaller overall and subregional callosal areas and
correspondingly reduced callosal width than the control group. Age
correlated negatively with callosal area in the control group but not in
the bipolar group. Signal intensity was higher in women than in men in
both groups. Signal intensity was reduced in women, but not in men, in
the bipolar group.
Observed differences probably relate to diagnosis rather than mood state
and bipolar disorder appears to result in morphometric change that
overrides changes seen in normal ageing. Intensity changes are consistent
with possible altered myelination or glial function. A gender-dependent
factor appears to operate and to interact with diagnosis.
Abnormal diffusion parameters are reported in specific brain regions and white matter tracts in bipolar disorder.
To investigate whether these abnormalities are generalised, and thus evident in large regions of white matter.
Diffusion parameters were measured at several regions in the corpus callosum and in deep/periventricular white matter in 28 currently euthymic patients with bipolar disorder and controls. White matter hyperintensity loads were assessed.
Comparing the whole data-sets using the sign test, in the group with bipolar disorder, mean diffusivity was greater at all 15 sites (P<0.001) and fractional anisotropy was reduced at 13 (P<0.01). The effect of diagnosis was significant for callosal mean diffusivity and fractional anisotropy and for deep/periventricular mean diffusivity (MANCOVA). Comparing individual regions (Mann–Whitney U-test), prefrontal and periventricular mean diffusivity were significantly increased; callosal and occipital fractional anisotropy were significantly reduced. Former substance use and lithium were possible confounding factors. Periventricular white matter hyperintensities were associated with significantly increased periventricular mean diffusivity in individuals with bipolar disorder.
Generalised white matter microstructural abnormalities may exist in bipolar disorder, possibly exacerbated by past substance use and ameliorated by lithium.
We report our investigations into tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) derivatives bearing N-methylthiocarbamoyl and halogen substituents which engage in intermolecular interactions in the solid state. The synthesis of new donors is presented, along with the X-ray crystal structures of some of these derivatives and their radical ion salts.
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