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This chapter, reviews the basics for children undergoing epilepsy surgery. The authors discuss the incidence and types of seizures as well as various modalities for seizure suppression (e.g. ketogenic diet, vagal nerve stimulation). The chapter presents the surgical approaches to epilepsy surgery, MRI mapping followed by laser ablation and electrocorticography with mapping followed by surgical excision. The anesthetic implications related to these complex patients are presented.
This chapter provides a thorough review of scoliosis correction surgery. The authors discuss the differentiation between idiopathic and neuromuscular scoliosis. The pre-operative evaluation of the patients with scoliosis is presented as well as a host of anesthetic considerations related to positioning, neurological monitoring, intravenous anesthesia and blood loss management.
This chapter provides an and in-depth review of the Moya-Moya Syndrome and surgical correction. The authors describe disorders commonly associated with Moya-Moya Disease. The angiographic staging as well as medical and surgical options are presented. A thorough discussion on the perioperative evaluation and anesthetic considerations for this complex disease is presented to the reader.
In this chapter, the authors discuss the issues related to post-operative neonatal apnea with an example of an infant hernia repair. Neonatal apnea, its etiology and associated risk factors is reviewed. The use of infant spinal anesthesia versus general anesthesia and its relationship to neonatal post-operative apnea is discussed.
In this chapter discusses the relevant perioperative anesthetic concerns related to thyroidectomy surgery. Reviewed is Graves’ disease, electrolyte and anatomic considerations of thyroid surgery as well as the timeframe and pathophysiology in relation to surgery.
In this chapter, the ductus arteriosus from development to maintenance in various disease states is discussed. The diagnostic process and hemodynamic consequences of a patent ductus arteriosus are reviewed. The medical and surgical indications for closure are discussed in relation to the anesthetic implications.
This chapter provides a review of anesthetic considerations for children with pyloric stenosis. The disease presentation, genetics and risk factors for pyloric stenosis are presented. The chapter provides detailed analysis of the preoperative work-up and considerations, reviews neonatal dehydration and provides the relevant anesthetic considerations for this surgical group.
In this chapter, pectus excavatum is discussed with regard to diagnosis, surgical indications, evaluation of severity and surgical approaches. The author reviews the anesthesia implications for the minimally invasive thoracoscopic approach (currently the standard technique) as well as a multimodal approach to pain management including regional and medical management options.
In this chapter, the critical pediatric topics of esophageal atresia and tracheoesophageal fistula are reviewed. The diagnosis and pathophysiology and variants of tracheoesophageal fistula are discussed. The author covers the associated anomalies and syndromes often present in patients with tracheoesophageal fistula diagnoses. The preoperative evaluation, anesthetic implications and regional anesthetic considerations are presented.
This chapter presents an overview of a more common pediatric cardiac lesion; tetralogy of Fallot. The authors provide a description of the anatomic variants that comprise the tetralogy spectrum in addition to a detailed pathophysiology discussion. The surgical/catheter-based interventions are presented in reference to the Tetralogy variant.
This chapter, provides an overview of epidurals in pediatric anesthesia practice. The author discusses the consideration for placement in the anesthetized patient, use of test doses, and contraindications to placement. Presented are the differences for consideration between pediatric and adult epidurals.
This chapter reviews the incidence, presentation and types of atrial septal defects. The pathophysiology and hemodynamic effects of atrial septal defects are discussed. The surgical and catheter-based interventions are reviewed in relation to the anesthetic considerations.
This chapter provides the reader with an easy to reference tabular guide on a host of parameters relevant to the anesthetic care of children. The reader will find useful tables on normal hemodynamic parameters for children, sizing for equipment, analgesics and references for a variety of frequently used medications. The guide should serve to acquaint novice pediatric providers and may serves as a quick reference for all providers for less commonly administered agents.
This chapter, provides an overview on the concerns centered on neurotoxicity from anesthetics in children following the FDA warning from 2016 and 2017. The authors provide a background for both clinical and basic science evidence on the effects of commonly used anesthetics on neural development. After review of the landmark studies in both animals and humans, the chapter provides suggestions for reducing exposure as well as addressing parental concerns.
This chapter reviews the incidence, presentation and types of ventricular septal defects. The pathophysiology and hemodynamic effects of atrial ventricular defects are discussed. The surgical based interventions are reviewed in relation to the anesthetic considerations.