This appendix contains information for accessing a wide range of influential science ethics codes and declarations. In addition to the websites listed, many of these documents and other related codes, statements, and declarations can be found in appendix V in volume IV (pp. 2158–2296) of Mitcham (2005).
1 Hippocratic Oath (fifth century BCE)
Ancient oath requiring physicians to swear upon a number of healing gods and to uphold certain professional ethical standards. The National Library of Medicine, nlm.nih.gov/hmd/greek/greek_oath.html.
2 The Nuremberg Code (1947)
The first and perhaps most influential code outlining ethical guidelines for the treatment of human subjects of medical research. National Institutes of Health, http://ohsr.od.nih.gov/guidelines/nuremberg.html.
3 World Medical Association: Declaration of Geneva or
International Code of Medical Ethics (1948)
A declaration of the physician’s dedication to the humanitarian goals of medicine. Updated in 1968, 1984, 1994, 2005, and 2006. World Medical Association, www.wma.net/en/30publications/10policies/c8/index.html.
4 The Einstein–Russell Manifesto (1955)
A statement calling on scientists to convene a conference to consider the perils that have arisen as a result of nuclear arms proliferation. Pugwash Conference on Science and World Affairs, www.pugwash.org/about/manifesto.htm.