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We have studied the nucleation, annealing and growth of GaP on Si substrates. Our findings are very similar to those reported for GaAs/Si. That is, dislocation density after I μm of growth is usually about 108 cm−2 surface morphology is best when a multi-temperature growth process is used and is dependent on the substrate orientation; antiphase domain density is minimized by misorienting the substrates. This commonality of results leads us to conclude that the elimination of interfacial contamination is more important in achieving good epitaxial growth of III-V compounds on Si than is the overcoming of lattice mismatch. In support of this hypothesis we present SIMS data revealing up to 2% of interfacial carbon and TEM observations of an amorphous interfacial phase. The carbon comes from the organometallic source and, we believe, reacts with the Si to form amorphous SiC, which disrupts the coalescence of GaP grains and produces lattice defects.
It is shown that GaP layers grown upon Si at a single temperature of 900ºC can have a crystalline quality superior to that exhibited by previous two—step and one—step growth methods. The layers are characterized by a planar network of misfit dislocations confined to the interface plane an a reduced density of threading dislocations (low 106 cm-2; previously >108). Very few threading defects were observed in areas devoid of amorphous oxide contamination, as shown by HREM examination of cross—sectional samples. A low growth rate during nucleation enhances crystalline perfection, since it decreases the tendency toward three—dimensional islanding.
Since the discovery in 1973 that GaAs/GaAsP superlattices can be grown with low dislocation densities, considerable interest has developed in utilizing superlattices as dislocation filters in multilayer semiconductor device structures. Many attempts to implement this process have been described, with varying degrees of success being achieved. Some investigators have reported favorable results; some have observed no effect; and in some cases the situation was actually made worse. This paper analyzes these reports and attempts to clarify the confusion that has arisen. Suggestions are made for improved effectiveness. Factors considered include the strain between layers, the layer thickness, the concept of critical thickness, the dislocation geometry, and the influence of buffer layers and growth conditions.
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